Class and Ethnicity in the Global Market for Organs: The Case of Korean Cinema
- 330 Downloads
While organ transplantation has been established in the medical imagination since the 1960s, this technology is currently undergoing a popular re-imagination in the era of global capitalism. As transplantation procedures have become routine in medical centers in non-Western and developing nations and as organ sales and transplant tourism become increasingly common, organs that function as a material resource increasingly derive from subaltern bodies. This essay explores this development as represented in Korean filmmaker Park Chan-wook’s 2002 Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance, focusing on the ethnic and class characteristics of the global market in organs and possible modes of counter-logic to transplant technologies and related ethical discourses.
KeywordsOrgan transplantation Biopower Korean cinema
- Adams III, A.F., A.H. Barnett, and D.L. Kaserman. “Markets for Organs: The Question of Supply.” Contemporary Economic Policy 17, no. 2 (1999): 147–55.Google Scholar
- Annas, G.J. “Reviews and Notes: Spare Parts: Organ Replacement in American Society.” Annals of Internal Medicine 120, no. 2 (1994): 252.Google Scholar
- Arnold, R., S. Bartlett, J. Bernat, J. Colonna, et al. “Financial Incentives for Cadaver Organ Donation: An Ethical Reappraisal.” Transplantation 73, no. 8 (2002): 1361–67.Google Scholar
- Benatar, S.R. “Blinkered Bioethics.” Journal of Medical Ethics 30, no. 3 (2004): 291–92.Google Scholar
- Dargis, M. “For Want of a Kidney, a Child Is Kidnapped and an Explosion of Shocking Violence Ensues.” The New York Times, August 19, 2005.Google Scholar
- Deleuze, G., and F. Guattari. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Trans. R. Hurley, et al. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983.Google Scholar
- “Donor Recipient Stories.” Access to US Government Information on Organ and Tissue Donation and Transplantation. http://www.organdonor.gov/stories/ (accessed July 1, 2006).
- Feng, Z. “New Rule to Regulate Organ Transplants.” China Daily. May 5, 2006. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-05/05/content_582847.htm (accessed July 1, 2006).
- Foucault, M. “Society Must Be Defended”: Lectures at the College of France, 1975–1976. Trans. D. Macey. New York: Picador, 2003.Google Scholar
- Fox, R.C., and J.P. Swazey. Spare Parts: Organ Replacement in American Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
- Gilbey, R. “Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance.” Sight and Sound 13, no. 7 (2003). http://www.bfi.org.uk/sightandsound/review/1281 (accessed July 1, 2006).
- Harvey, D. The Condition of Post-Modernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1990.Google Scholar
- Hippen, B.E. “In Defense of a Regulated Market in Kidneys from Living Vendors.” The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30, no. 6 (2005): 593–626.Google Scholar
- Human Rights Watch/Asia. “An Executioner’s Testimony: Supplementary Submission by HRW/A to the US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.” Hearing on China’s Use of Executed Prisoners’ Organs. May 4, 1995.Google Scholar
- Illich, I. Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health. New York: Pantheon, 1976.Google Scholar
- Keogh, T. “Shock Treatment, with a Vengeance.” The Seattle Times, September 9, 2005.Google Scholar
- Lock, M. Twice Dead: Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.Google Scholar
- Matas, D., and D. Kilgour. “Bloody Harvest: Revised Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China.” January 31, 2007. http://organharvestinvestigation.net (accessed February 27, 2007).
- McGee, E.M. “Using Personal Narratives to Encourage Organ Donation.” American Journal of Bioethics 5, no. 4 (2005): 19–20.Google Scholar
- McNeill, D., and C. Coonan. “Japanese Flock to China for Organ Transplants.” Japan Focus, April 2, 2006. http://www.japanfocus.org (accessed July 1, 2006).
- “Moral Problems in the Use of Borrowed Organs, Artificial and Transplanted.” Annals of Internal Medicine 60, no. 2 (1964): 309–313.Google Scholar
- “Organs Watch.” http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/biotech/organswatch (accessed July 1, 2006).
- Phillips, M. “Movie Review: Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance.” The Chicago Tribune Undated. http://metromix.chicagotribune.com (accessed July 1, 2006).
- Radcliffe-Richards, J., A.S. Daar, R.D. Guttmann, R. Hoffenberg, I. Kennedy, M. Lock, R.A. Sells, and N.L. Tilney. “The Case for Allowing Kidney Sales.” Lancet 351, no. 9120 (1998): 1950–52.Google Scholar
- “Real People.” TransWeb: All About Transplantation and Donation. http://www.transweb.org (accessed July 1, 2006).
- Rothman, D.J., E. Rose, T. Awaya, B. Cohen, A. Daar, S.L. Dzemeshkevich, C.J. Lee, R. Munro, H. Reyes, S.M. Rothman, K.F. Echoen, N. Scheper-Hughes, Z. Shapira, and H. Smit. “The Bellagio Task Force Report on Transplantation, Bodily Integrity, and the International Traffic in Organs.” Transplantation Proceedings 29, no. 6 (1997): 2739–45.Google Scholar
- Satel, S. “Death’s Waiting List.” The New York Times, May 15, 2006.Google Scholar
- Scheper-Hughes, N. “The Global Traffic in Human Organs.” Current Anthropology 41, no. 2 (2000): 191–224.Google Scholar
- Scheper-Hughes, N. “The Global Traffic in Human Organs: A Report Presented to the House Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights, United States Congress on June 27, 2001.” http://www.publicanthropology.org/TimesPast/Scheper-Hughes.htm (accessed July 1, 2006).
- “Shared Experiences,” “Meet Chris,” “Meet Lisa,” etc. Transplant Experience. http://www.transplantexperience.com (accessed July 1, 2006).