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Apatite Coating of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Alternate Addition of Calcium and Phosphate Solutions: A Calcium and Carboxylate (Ca-COO) Complex-Mediated Apatite Deposition

  • Vincent Irawan
  • Masaki Takeguchi
  • Toshiyuki IkomaEmail author
Article
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

Apatite is a biocompatible material widely used to encapsulate iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) for biomedical applications, such as drug-delivery or fluorescent probe agent. Apatite-coated IONPs are commonly fabricated by initially incubating carboxylate-functionalized IONPs in calcium solution and directly adding phosphate solution to initiate apatite precipitation (direct-addition method). Apatite precipitation took place not only on IONPs surface but also in the bulk solution, resulting in apatite-IONPs mixture instead of coated structure. In this study, robust apatite-coated IONPs structure were aimed by modifying steps in direct-addition method. Initially, carboxylate-functionalized IONPs were incubated in calcium solution, physically separated from the incubating calcium solution by external magnet, and then separately reacted with phosphate solution to induce apatite deposition (alternate-addition method). Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that a calcium solution at a concentration of 0.8 mol/L was required to initiate the formation of the calcium-carboxylate (Ca-COO) complex. The formation of non-stoichiometric apatite was confirmed for IONPs with Ca-COO complex, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analysis. The alternate-addition method produced apatite coating in the form of flake-like structures, which also exhibited strong adhesion to IONPs surface. In contrast, direct-addition method mainly produced agglomerate of apatite particles that weakly associated with IONPs. Both of apatite-coating methods did not alter the magnetic properties of IONPs. The simple modification of reaction steps in the widely used apatite-coating method was demonstrated to be beneficial in producing robust apatite-coated IONPs structure.

Keywords

Apatite coating Calcium-carboxylate complex Iron oxide nanoparticles 

Notes

Supplementary material

10904_2019_1255_MOESM1_ESM.tif (467 kb)
Supplementary material 1 Supplementary Figure 1 Schematic representation of direct-addition and alternate-addition method (TIFF 467 kb)
10904_2019_1255_MOESM2_ESM.tif (1.7 mb)
Supplementary material 2 Supplementary Figure 2 (left figure) Selected area of CaP-0.8 is indicated by yellow box; (right figures) RGB map is a combined image of separate elemental mapping of Fe, Ca, O, and P (TIFF 1690 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical TechnologyTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.National Institute of Materials ScienceTsukubaJapan

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