Poly (cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone) (PZD) microspheres were prepared by precipitation polymerization with simple scheme and convenient operation, and used as a special effect adsorbent for adsorbing cationic dye, which is methylene blue (MB) in water. The synthesized PZD microspheres were characterized by SEM, TEM and XPS techniques. The influences of temperature, adsorption time, pH initial MB solution concentration and adsorbent dosage on MB adsorption were studied. The experimental results show that the adsorption of MB dye by PZD microspheres is more in line with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. In addition, the adsorption process was further resolved using Weber’s intraparticle diffusion model. Thermodynamic experiments show that the adsorption process is spontaneously carried out by endotherm. The mechanism of adsorption of MB dye by PZD microspheres may be related to the existence of a lot of electron-rich atoms N, P, S in the adsorbent, the electrostatic attraction and π–π stacking effect between PZD microspheres and MB dye.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
D. Robati, S. Bagheriyan, M. Rajabi, O. Moradi, A.A. Peyghan, Effect of electrostatic interaction on the methylene blue and methyl orange adsorption by the pristine and functionalized carbon nanotubes. Phys. E 83, 1–6 (2016)
P. Sharma, H. Kaur, M. Sharma, V. Sahore, A review on applicability of naturally available adsorbents for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste. Environ. Monit. Assess. 183, 151–195 (2011)
P. Sharma, B.K. Saikia, M.R. Das, Removal of methyl green dye molecule from aqueous system using reduced graphene oxide as an efficient adsorbent: kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic parameters. Colloids Surf. A 457, 125–133 (2014)
T.A. Nguyen, C.C. Fu, R.S. Juang, Effective removal of sulfur dyes from water by biosorption and subsequent immobilized laccase degradation on crosslinked chitosan beads. Chem. Eng. J. 304, 313–324 (2016)
Y. Pan, Y. Wang, A. Zhou, A. Wang, Z. Wu, L. Lv, X. Li, K. Zhang, T. Zhu, Removal of azo dye in an up-flow membrane-less bioelectrochemical system integrated with bio-contact oxidation reactor. J. Chem. Eng. 326, 454–461 (2017)
J. Chen, L. Zhang, T. Huang, W. Li, W. Ying, Z. Wang, Decolorization of azo dye by peroxymonosulfate activated by carbon nanotube: radical versus non-radical mechanism. J. Hazard. Mater. 320, 571–580 (2016)
E. Forgiarini, A.A. de Souza, Toxicity of textile dyes and their degradation by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). J. Hazard. Mater. 147, 1073–1078 (2007)
C.R. Holkar, A.J. Jadhav, D.V. Pinjari, N.M. Mahamuni, A.B. Pandit, A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: possible approaches. J. Environ. Manag. 182, 351–366 (2016)
O. Duman, S. Tunç, T.G. Polat, B.K. Bozoğlan, Synthesis of magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite adsorbent and its application in cationic Methylene Blue dye adsorption. Carbohydr. Polym. 147, 79–88 (2016)
P.M. Rowiński, Influence of selected fluorescent dyes on small aquatic organisms. Acta Geophys. 59, 91–109 (2011)
M.M. El-Zawahry, A. Fatma, R.A. Abdelghaffar, A.G. Hassabo, Equilibrium and kinetic models on the adsorption of reactive black 5 from aqueous solution using Eichhornia crassipes/chitosan composite. Carbohydr. Polym. 136, 507–515 (2016)
Z. Du, Z. Yue, Z. Li, C. Hui, W. Ying, G. Wang, Z. Ping, H. Chen, Y. Zhang, Facile one-pot fabrication of nano-Fe3O4/carboxyl-functionalized baker’s yeast composites and their application in methylene blue dye adsorption. Appl. Surf. Sci. 392, 312–320 (2017)
V.C. La, A. Tavani, Epidemiological evidence on hair dyes and the risk of cancer in humans. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. Organ. 4(1), 31–43 (1995)
N. Gupta, A.K. Kushwaha, M.C. Chattopadhyaya, Application of potato (Solanum tuberosum) plant wastes for the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dye from aqueous solution. J. Chem. 9, S707–S716 (2016)
H. Sayğılı, F. Güzel, High surface area mesoporous activated carbon from tomato processing solid waste by zinc chloride activation: process optimization, characterization and dyes adsorption. J. Clean. Prod. 113, 995–1004 (2016)
R. Das, M. Bhaumik, S. Giri, A. Maity, Sonocatalytic rapid degradation of Congo red dye from aqueous solution using magnetic Fe0/polyaniline nanofibers. Ultrason. Sonochem. 37, 600–613 (2017)
M. Perullini, M. Jobbã, M.L. Japas, S.A. Bilmes, New method for the simultaneous determination of diffusion and adsorption of dyes in silica hydrogels. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 425, 91–95 (2014)
N. Ertugay, F.N. Acar, Removal of COD and color from direct blue 71 azo dye wastewater by Fenton’s oxidation: kinetic study. J. Chem. 10, S1158–S1163 (2017)
D. Wiedmer, E. Sagstuen, H. K. Welch, J. Håvard, H. Tiainen, Oxidative power of aqueous non-irradiated TiO2 -H2O2 suspensions: methylene blue degradation and the role of reactive oxygen species. Appl Catal B-Environ. 198, 9–15 (2016)
J. Lin, W. Ye, M.C. Baltaru, Y.P. Tang, N.J. Bernstein, P. Gao, S. Balta, M. Vlad, A. Volodin, A. Sotto, Tight ultrafiltration membranes for enhanced separation of dyes and Na2SO4 during textile wastewater treatment. J. Membr. Sci. 514, 217–228 (2016)
K. Zare, V.K. Gupta, O. Moradi, A.S.H. Makhlouf, M. Sillanpää, M.N. Nadagouda, H. Sadegh, R. Shahryari-ghoshekandi, A. Pal, Z.J. Wang, A comparative study on the basis of adsorption capacity between CNTs and activated carbon as adsorbents for removal of noxious synthetic dyes: a review. J. Nanostruct. Chem. 5, 227–236 (2015)
K.C. Chan, C.Y.H. Chao, C.L. Wu, Measurement of properties and performance prediction of the new MWCNT-embedded zeolite 13X/CaCl2 composite adsorbents. J. Heat Mass Transf. 89, 308–319 (2015)
H.S. Jamwal, S. Kumari, G.S. Chauhan, N.S. Reddy, J.H. Ahn, Silica-polymer hybrid materials as methylene blue adsorbents. J. Env. Chem. Eng. 5, 103-113 (2017)
T. Maneerung, J. Liew, Y. Dai, S. Kawi, C. Chong, C.H. Wang, Activated carbon derived from carbon residue from biomass gasification and its application for dye adsorption: Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic studies. Bio. Tech. 200, 350–359 (2016)
B. Armağan, M. Turan, M.S. Ęlik, Equilibrium studies on the adsorption of reactive azo dyes into zeolite. Desalination 170, 33–39 (2004).
L. Jiang, Y. Liu, S. Liu, X. Hu, G. Zeng, H. Xi, S. Liu, S. Liu, B. Huang, M. Li, Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin/poly (L-glutamic acid) supported magnetic graphene oxide and its adsorption behavior for 17β-estradiol. J. Chem. Eng. 308, 597-605 (2017)
L. Hu, A. Zhang, Y. Yu, Z. Zheng, S. Du, X. Cheng, Synthesis of hybrid crosslinked polyphosphazenes and investigation of their properties. J. Iran. Polym. 23, 689–698 (2014)
M. Wang, J. Fu, Y. Zhang, Z. Chen, M. Wang, J. Zhu, W. Cui, J. Zhang, Q. Xu, Removal of Rhodamine B, a cationic dye from aqueous solution using poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4′-sulfonyldiphenol) nanotubes. J. Macromol. Sci: Part A - Chem. 52, 105–113 (2015)
J. Fu, M. Wang, C. Zhang, P. Zhang, Q. Xu, High hydrogen storage capacity of heteroatom-containing porous carbon nanospheres produced from cross-linked polyphosphazene nanospheres. Mater. Lett. 81, 215-218 (2012)
Z. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Fu, M. Wang, X. Wang, R. Han, Q. Xu, Adsorption of methylene blue onto poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4′-sulfonyldiphenol) nanotubes: Kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamics analysis, J. Hazard Mater. 273, 263–271 (2014)
Y. Chen, L. Li, W. Wang, L. Qian, Preparation and characterization of surface-modified ammonium polyphosphate and its effect on the flame retardancy of rigid polyurethane foam. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134, 45369 (2017)
L. Guo, L. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Zhou, Q. He, S. Zeng, X. Cui, J. Shi, Hollow mesoporous carbon spheres--an excellent bilirubin adsorbent. Chem. Commun. 40, 6071–6073 (2009)
L. Ai, C. Zhang, F. Liao, Y. Wang, M. Li, L. Meng, J. Jiang, Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution with magnetite loaded multi-wall carbon nanotube: kinetic, isotherm and mechanism analysis. J. Hazard. Mater. 198, 282-290 (2011)
T. Madrakian, A. Afkhami, M. Ahmadi, H. Bagheri, Removal of some cationic dyes from aqueous solutions using magnetic-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J. Hazard. Mater. 196, 109–114 (2011)
E.C. Lima, B. Royer, V. Jcp, N.M. Simon, C.B. Da, F.A. Pavan, E.V. Benvenutti, R. Cataluna-Veses, C. Airoldi, Application of Brazilian pine-fruit shell as a biosorbent to removal of reactive red 194 textile dye from aqueous solution : Kinetics and equilibrium study. J. Hazard. Mater. 155, 536-550 (2008)
D.L. Guerra, A.C. Batista, R.R. Viana, C. Airoldi, Adsorption of methylene blue on raw and MTZ/imogolite hybrid surfaces: Effect of concentration and calorimetric investigation. J. Hazard. Mater. 183, 81-86 (2010)
We are grateful to the University of South China Student Research Learning and Innovative Experimental Project Fund (No. 2018XJXZ32).
Conflict of interest
:All the authors do not have any possible conflicts of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Zou, J., Liao, K., Xiang, L. et al. Synthesis of Poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4′-diaminodiphenysulfone) Microspheres and Their Adsorption Properties for Cationic Dyes (Methylene Blue). J Inorg Organomet Polym 30, 976–985 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10904-019-01235-8
- Methylene blue