Ammonium Perchlorate Encapsulated with TiO2 Nanocomposite for Catalyzed Combustion Reactions
- 53 Downloads
Ammonium perchlorate (APC) is the most common oxidizer for highly energetic systems. The initial decomposition of APC is an endothermic process. This behavior withstands high activation energy and could render high burning rate. We report on the sustainable fabrication of TiO2 nanoparticles; a novel catalyzing agent for APC. Mono-dispersed TiO2 particles of 10 nm particle size were fabricated using hydrothermal processing. XRD diffractogram demonstrated highly crystalline structure. The synthesized colloidal TiO2 particles were effectively integrated into APC particles via co-precipitation technique. The impact of TiO2 particles (1 wt%) on APC thermal behavior was investigated using DSC and TGA. APC demonstrated an initial endothermic decomposition (with absorption heat of 102.5 J/g) at 242 °C, and two subsequent exothermic decomposition stages at 297.8 and 452.8 °C respectively. TiO2 offered a decrease in APC early endothermic decomposition by 80%. The two main exothermic decomposition stages were merged into one single stage with an increase in total heat release by 18%. These novel features could inherit titanium oxide particles unique catalyzing ability for advanced highly energetic systems.
KeywordsAmmonium perchlorate Catalyst Thermal behavior Energetic systems Catalyzed propellants
This work has been conducted at Nanotechnology Center, Military Technical College, Cairo, Egypt.
- 5.J.A. Conkling, C. Mocella, Chemistry of Pyrotechnics: Basic Principles and Theory (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2010)Google Scholar
- 6.G.P. Sutton, O. Biblarz, Rocket Propulsion Elements (Wiley, New York, 2001)Google Scholar
- 7.N. Kubota, Propellants and Explosives: Thermochemical Aspects of Combustion (Wiley, Weinheim, 2015)Google Scholar
- 10.M.J. Turner, Rocket and spacecraft propulsion: principles, practice and new developments (Springer, Berlin, 2008)Google Scholar
- 11.N.R. Council, Advanced Energetic Materials (National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2004)Google Scholar
- 16.Nema et al., Mechanistic aspect of thermal decomposition and burn rate of binder and oxidiser of AP/HTPB composite propellants comprising HYASIS-CAT. Int. J. Plastics Technol. 8, 344–354 (2004)Google Scholar
- 27.J. Li, Engineering nanoparticles in near-critical and supercritical water, PhD, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, 2008Google Scholar
- 29.K. Byrappa, M. Yoshimura (eds.), Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology (William Andrew, Norwich, 2001)Google Scholar
- 32.H. Hobbs, Biocatalysis in ‘green solvents, PhD, Chemistry, University of Nottingham, Notttingham, 2006Google Scholar