Advertisement

Childhood Adversity and Psychosocial Health Outcomes in Later Life Among Immigrants in Canada

  • Vincent Z. KuuireEmail author
Original Paper
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

Childhood adversity is known to have an enduring effect on health outcomes of victims. The objective of the study was to examine the association between childhood adversity and psychosocial health outcomes among immigrants in Canada. Using descriptive and inferential statistics and fitting negative loglog regression models to the 2014 General Social Survey, the paper examined the relationship between experience of childhood adversity (i.e. physical and sexual abuse before age 15) and its association with psychosocial health outcomes (i.e. psychological-mental condition and self-rated mental health) among immigrants in Canada. After accounting for relevant socioeconomic and demographic factors, the results show that physical abuse during childhood resulted in 29% and 31% increased likelihood of having a psychological mental condition and poor self-rated mental health, respectively. Also, sexual abuse during childhood was associated with 28% increased likelihood of poor self-rated mental health. In conclusion, the findings show that experience of physical and sexual abuse during childhood is associated with negative mental health outcomes in later life.

Keywords

Childhood adversity Mental health Immigrants Health Canada 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This project was supported by generous funding from the Connaught New Researcher Award from the Connaught Fund.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

The GSS was approved by Statistics Canada institutional ethics review board. Ethical approval is not required for a secondary analysis of the public use microdata files of the GSS.

Research Involving in Human Participants and/or Animals

The data used in this study does not contain information from human participants performed by the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Ley D, Hiebert D. Immigration policy as population policy. Can Geogr Géogr Can. 2001;45:120–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Statistics Canada. 150 years of immigration in Canada. 2016. Available from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-630-x/11-630-x2016006-eng.htm.
  3. 3.
    Berry JW, Hou F. Acculturation, discrimination and wellbeing among second generation of immigrants in Canada. Int J Intercult Relat. 2017;61:29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Newbold KB. Self-rated health within the Canadian immigrant population: risk and the healthy immigrant effect. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60:1359–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Newbold KB, Danforth J. Health status and Canada’s immigrant population. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57:1981–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Subedi RP, Rosenberg MW. Determinants of the variations in self-reported health status among recent and more established immigrants in Canada. Soc Sci Med. 2014;115:103–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang L, Palacios EL. The social and spatial patterning of life stress among immigrants in Canada introduction and background. J Immigr Minor Health. 2017;19:665–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beiser M. After the door has been opened: The mental health of immigrants and refugees in Canada. In: Responses Int Refug Cris Br Can, editor. Robinson vaughan. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 1993. p. 213–25.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang L, Hu W. Immigrant health, place effect and regional disparities in Canada. Soc Sci Med. 2013;98:8–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    World Health Organization. Preventing Child Maltreatment: a guide to taking action and generating evidence. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Widom CS, Czaja SJ, Bentley T, Johnson MS. A prospective investigation of physical health outcomes in abused and neglected children: new findings from a 30-year follow-up. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:1135–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: the adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. Am J Prev Med. 1998;14:245–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gladstone GL, Parker GB, Mitchell PB, Malhi GS, Wilhelm K, Austin M-P. Implications of childhood trauma for depressed women: an analysis of pathways from childhood sexual abuse to deliberate self-harm and revictimization. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1417–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kendler KS, Aggen SH. Clarifying the causal relationship in women between childhood sexual abuse and lifetime major depression. Psychol Med. 2014;44:1213–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baiden P, Fallon B, Den Dunnen W, Boateng GO. The enduring effects of early-childhood adversities and troubled sleep among Canadian adults: a population-based study. Sleep Med. 2015;16:760–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Daray FM, Rojas SM, Bridges AJ, Badour CL, Grendas L, Rodante D, et al. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients. Child Abuse Negl. 2016;58:91–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Joiner TE, Sachs-Ericsson NJ, Wingate LR, Brown JS, Anestis MD, Selby EA. Childhood physical and sexual abuse and lifetime number of suicide attempts: a persistent and theoretically important relationship. Behav Res Ther. 2007;45:539–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fuller-Thomson E, Mehta R, Valeo A. Establishing a link between attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and childhood physical abuse. J Aggress Maltreat Trauma. 2014;23:188–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Spataro J, Mullen PE, Burgess PM, Wells DL, Moss SA. Impact of child sexual abuse on mental health. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;184:416–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thomson MS, Chaze F, George U, Guruge S. Improving immigrant populations’ access to mental health services in Canada: a review of barriers and recommendations. J Immigr Minor Health. 2015;17:1895–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Whitley R, Kirmayer LJ, Groleau D. Understanding immigrants’ reluctance to use mental health services: a qualitative study from Montreal. Can J Psychiatry. 2006;54(4):205–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rechel B, Mladovsky P, Ingleby D, Mackenbach JP, McKee M. Migration and health in an increasingly diverse Europe. Lancet. 2013;381:1235–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hansson EK, Tuck A, Lurie S, McKenzie K. Rates of mental illness and suicidality in immigrant, refugee, ethnocultural, and racialized groups in Canada: a review of the literature. Can J Psychiatry. 2012;57(2):111–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Beiser M, Goodwill AM, Albanese P, McShane K, Kanthasamy P. Predictors of the integration of Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in Canada: pre-migration adversity, mental health, personal attributes, and post-migration experience. Int J Migr Heal Soc Care. 2015;11:29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Correa-Velez I, Gifford SM, Mcmichael C. The persistence of predictors of wellbeing among refugee youth eight years after resettlement in Melbourne. Aust Soc Sci Med. 2015;142:163–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alegría M, Sribney W, Woo M, Torres M, Guarnaccia P. Looking beyond nativity: the relation of age of immigration, length of residence, and birth cohorts to the risk of onset of psychiatric disorders for Latinos. Res Hum Dev. 2007;4:19–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wu Z, Schimmele CM, Hou F. Self-percieved integration of immigrants and their children. Can J Sociol. 2012;37:381–408.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schmitt MT, Postmes T, Branscombe NR, Garcia A. The consequences of perceived discrimination for psychological well-being: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull. 2014;140:921–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McQuaid RJ, Bombay A, McInnis OA, Matheson K, Anisman H. Childhood adversity, perceived discrimination, and coping strategies in relation to depressive symptoms among first nations adults in Canada: the moderating role of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2015;21:326–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Statistics Canada. Dataset: General Social Survey, Cycle 28, 2014 [Canada]: Victimization, Main File [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2018 Dec 24]. Available from: http://odesi2.scholarsportal.info/webview/velocity?mode=regression&analysismode=regression&v=2&study=http%3A%2F%2F142.150.190.128%3A80%2Fobj%2FfStudy%2Fgss-12M0018-E-2014-c-28-vmf&regMod=corr.
  31. 31.
    Gregory AM, Moffitt TE, Poulton R. Family conflict in childhood: a\rpredictor of later insomnia. Sleep. 2006;29:1063–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Magalhaes L,Carrasco C, Gastaldo D. Undocumented migrants in Canada: a scope literature review on health, access to services, and working conditions. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010;12(1):132–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Asanin J, Wilson K. “I spent nine years looking for a doctor”: exploring access to health care among immigrants in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66:1271–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gaensbauer TJ, Jordan L (2009) Psychoanalytic perspectives on early trauma: Interviews with thirty analysts who treated an adult victim of a circumscribed trauma in early childhood. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, Vol 57, SAGE PublicationsSage, Los Angeles, pp. 947–77.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Beiser M, Hou F. Predictors of positive mental health among refugees: results from Canada’s General Social Survey. Transcult Psychiatry. 2017;54:5–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dunn JR, Dyck I. Social determinants of health in Canada’s immigrant population: results from the National Population Health Survey. Soc Sci Med. 2000;51:1573–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of Toronto MississaugaMississaugaCanada
  2. 2.Social & Behavioural Health ScienceDalla Lana School of Public Health, University of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations