Advertisement

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 578–585 | Cite as

Guards in Prisons: A Risk Group for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

  • Luisa Arroyave
  • Yoav Keynan
  • Deny Sanchez
  • Lucelly López
  • Diana Marin
  • Maryluz Posada
  • Zulma Vanessa RuedaEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

To determine the prevalence and incidence of LTBI among prison guards and to the risk factors associated with infection. Two male prisons in Medellín and Itaguí, Colombia. A cohort study was conducted in adult prison guards that consented to participate. Exclusion criteria included: previous or current active TB, or conditions that preclude TST administration. We screened 194 guards and completed 155 TST administrations. The prevalence of LTBI was 55.8% in prison one, and 39.1% in prison two. The risk factors associated with LTBI diagnosis included drug use at least once in a lifetime (PR: 1.75; 95% CI 1.42–2.15) and male sex (PR: 2.16; 95% CI 1.01–4.62). The cumulative incidence of TST conversion over 6 months was 3.2%. All conversions occurred in prison 1. Our findings suggest an occupational risk for LTBI prevalence and incidence among guards (different prevalence and incidence according to the prison they work).

Keywords

Tuberculosis Infection Prison guards Prevalence Incidence 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to all participants of this study; to INPEC (Instituto Nacional Penitenciario y Carcelario de Colombia), the prisons directors and everyone working there for their support in the study. Thanks to Grupo de Epidemiología, Universidad de Antioquia and Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, for supported one author in travel expenses to share the results in a scientific event. Thanks to those who funded this research: Colciencias (Colombian Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation) and Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (Grant No. 121071249878). The study sponsors were not involved in study design, data collection, interpretation and analysis or in writing the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflict of interest to report.

Ethical Approval

This research was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública, Universidad de Antioquia, the Instituto Nacional Penitenciario y Carcelario (INPEC), and the director of each prison.

Informed Consent

Written informed consent was explained and signed in the presence of two witnesses, which under no circumstance were a superior. For those guards with respiratory symptoms at the time of evaluation, a referral for further assessment by a physician to rule out the presence of active TB, was carried out. To date no cases of active TB were identified during the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Dara M, Acosta CD, Melchers NVSV, Al-Darraji HAA, Chorgoliani D, Reyes H, et al. Tuberculosis control in prisons: current situation and research gaps. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;32:111–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baussano I, Williams BG, Nunn P, Beggiato M, Fedeli U, Scano F. Tuberculosis incidence in prisons: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2010;7:e1000381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Margolis B, Al-Darraji HA, Wickersham JA, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL. Prevalence of tuberculosis symptoms and latent tuberculous infection among prisoners in northeastern Malaysia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013;17:1538–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vinkeles Melchers NVS, van Elsland SL, Lange JMA, Borgdorff MW, van den Hombergh J. State of affairs of tuberculosis in prison facilities: a systematic review of screening practices and recommendations for best TB control. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dara M, Chadha SS, Vinkeles Melchers NVS, Melchers NV, van den Hombergh J, Gurbanova E, et al. Time to act to prevent and control tuberculosis among inmates. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013;17:4–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Steenland K, Levine AJ, Sieber K, Schulte P, Aziz D. Incidence of tuberculosis infection among New York State prison employees. Am J Public Health. 1997;87:2012–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dara M, Chorgoliani D, de Colombani P. Chapter 8. TB prevention and control care in prisons [Internet]. 2017. http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-determinants/prisons-and-health/publications/2014/prisons-and-health/report-by-chapters/chapter-8.-tb-prevention-and-control-care-in-prisons. Accessed 18 Dec 2017.
  8. 8.
    Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Correctional and Detention Facilities: Recommendations from CDC. Endorsed by the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, the National Commission on Correctional Health Care, and the American Correctional Association [Internet]. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 2006. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5509a1.htm. Accessed 18 Dec 2017.
  9. 9.
    Al-Darraji HAA, Tan C, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL. Prevalence and correlates of latent tuberculosis infection among employees of a high security prison in Malaysia. Occup Environ Med. 2015;72:442–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Binswanger IA, O’Brien K, Benton K, Gardner EM, Hirsh JM, Felton S, et al. Tuberculosis testing in correctional officers: a national random survey of jails in the United States. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14:464–70.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rueda ZV, López L, Vélez LA, Marín D, Giraldo MR, Pulido H, et al. High incidence of tuberculosis, low sensitivity of current diagnostic scheme and prolonged culture positivity in four colombian prisons. A cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rueda ZV, Arroyave L, Marin D, López L, Keynan Y, Giraldo MR, et al. High prevalence and risk factors associated with latent tuberculous infection in two Colombian prisons. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014;18:1166–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arroyave L, Keynan Y, López L, Marin D, Arbeláez MP, Rueda ZV. Negative latent tuberculosis at time of incarceration: identifying a very high-risk group for infection. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2491–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    del Corral H, París SC, Marín ND, Marín DM, López L, Henao HM, et al. IFNγ response to mycobacterium tuberculosis, risk of infection and disease in household contacts of tuberculosis patients in Colombia. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    CDC. Targeted tuberculin infection: A guide for primary health care providers [Internet]. 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/TB/publications/LTBI/default.htm. Accessed 18 Dec 2013
  16. 16.
    Menzies D. Interpretation of repeated tuberculin tests. Boosting, conversion, and reversion. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159:15–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jochem K, Tannenbaum TN, Menzies D. Prevalence of tuberculin skin test reactions among prison workers. Can J Public Health. 1997;88:202–6.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mitchell CS, Gershon RRM, Lears MK, Vlahov D, Felknor S, Lubelczyk RA, et al. Risk of tuberculosis in correctional healthcare workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47:580–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dara M, Acosta CD. Tuberculosis prevention and control in prisons: do we know enough? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014;18:758–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carbone ADSS, Paião DS, Sgarbi RVE, Lemos EF, Cazanti RF, Ota MM, et al. Active and latent tuberculosis in Brazilian correctional facilities: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Facultad Nacional de Salud PúblicaUniversidad de Antioquia UdeAMedellínColombia
  2. 2.Department of Medical Microbiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Community Health SciencesUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Facultad de Medicina, Escuela de Ciencias de la SaludUniversidad Pontificia BolivarianaMedellínColombia

Personalised recommendations