Geospatial Analysis of Refugee Access to Primary Care Physicians in San Antonio, Texas

  • Nicole J. Wong
  • Lung-Chang Chien
  • Hasanat AlamgirEmail author
Original Paper


This study investigated refugee access to primary care physicians (PCP) in San Antonio, Texas. Catholic Charities of San Antonio (CCSA) is the primary agency responsible for connecting refugees to a PCP. Data on refugees were collected from CCSA between May to September 2013 (N = 547). PCPs information was accessed at the Texas Medicaid and Healthcare Partnership (TMHP) website. The 2SFCA method was used in geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the ratio of healthcare providers relative to refugees within varying walking distances. The highest concentration of accessibility was at 20 min distance in the Medical Center area. The highest concentration of accessibility at all walking distances were also in the Medical Center area. The univariate and multivariate analyses did not result in significant findings for the association between demographic variables and the accessibility scores. These findings recommend building new and more relationships with healthcare providers where PCPs access is low.


Refugee Health care access Primary care physician access San Antonio Texas 



The team sincerely thanks the Catholic Charities of San Antonio for their work and help in conducting this research.

Author Contributions

NW designed, collected and organized data, conducted GIS mapping analysis and writing. HA supervised and contributed to the writing. LC supervised the GIS analysis.


This study was not funded by any source.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have not received research grants from any source and have no conflict of interest. This study proposal has undergone review by the University of Texas Health Science Center Committee for Protection of Human Subjects and the Institutional Review Board (HCS-SPH-13-0824).

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. This was a secondary data analyses and no individual identifier is there to identify the subjects.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was not necessary to obtain from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole J. Wong
    • 1
  • Lung-Chang Chien
    • 2
  • Hasanat Alamgir
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.University of Texas School of Public HealthSan Antonio CampusUSA
  2. 2.Epidemiology and Biostatistics program, Department of Environmental and Occupational HealthUniversity of Nevada, Las VegasLas VegasUSA
  3. 3.Department of Public HealthNew York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA

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