Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 1038–1045 | Cite as

Immunization Coverage in Migrant School Children Along the Thailand-Myanmar Border

  • Aiko KajiEmail author
  • Daniel M. Parker
  • Cindy S. Chu
  • Wipa Thayatkawin
  • Jiraporn Suelaor
  • Rachai Charatrueangrongkun
  • Kloloi Salathibuppha
  • Francois H. Nosten
  • Rose McGready
Original Paper


The objective of this project was to document and increase vaccine coverage in migrant school children on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Migrant school children (n = 12,277) were enrolled in a school-based immunization program in four Thai border districts. The children were evaluated for vaccination completion and timing, for six different vaccines: Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG); Oral Polio vaccine (OPV); Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB); Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus vaccine (DTP); Measles Containing Vaccine or Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR); Tetanus and Diphtheria containing vaccine (Td). Vaccine coverage proportions for BCG, OPV3, DTP3, HepB3 and measles containing vaccine were 92.3, 85.3, 63.8, 72.2, and 90.9 % respectively. Most children were able to receive vaccines in a time appropriate manner. School-based immunization programs offer a suitable vaccine delivery mechanism for hard-to-reach populations. However, these data suggest overall low vaccine coverage in migrant populations. Further efforts toward improving appropriate vaccine coverage and methods of retaining documentation of vaccination in mobile migrant populations are necessary for improved health.


Immunization Vaccine coverage Migrant children School 



Our program is funded by European Union (Grant Number: 164.106 and 256.285). SMRU is part of the Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit supported by the Wellcome Trust (UK). We would like to thank Brenton Burkholder, Aree Moungsookjareoun, WHO Thailand for their technical advice on this report. We appreciate technical support and vaccine supplies of Ministry of Public Health, Tak Provincial Health Office and Mae Sot General Hospital. We gratefully acknowledge migrant school teachers for assistance at schools. We are grateful to Verena Carrara for her advice through the SMRU immunization program. Likewise, we would like to thank Wilasinee Gatenoi for her coordination with Tak Provincial Health Office and Mae Sot General Hospital.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2015

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aiko Kaji
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Daniel M. Parker
    • 2
    • 3
  • Cindy S. Chu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wipa Thayatkawin
    • 2
  • Jiraporn Suelaor
    • 2
  • Rachai Charatrueangrongkun
    • 2
  • Kloloi Salathibuppha
    • 2
  • Francois H. Nosten
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Rose McGready
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health and Tropical MedicineTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical MedicineMahidol UniversityMae SotThailand
  3. 3.Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical MedicineMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  4. 4.Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of MedicineUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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