Advertisement

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 1183–1189 | Cite as

Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults

  • Christian J. CerradaEmail author
  • Jennifer B. Unger
  • Jimi Huh
Original Paper

Abstract

Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18–25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15–20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents’ smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father’s smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population’s gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

Keywords

Perceived smoking norms Emerging adults Korean American smokers 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank our participants who contributed valuable information to the field. We also thank Zarina Abramova, Todd Choi, Aditi Jayaraman, Michelle Kang, Shelby Rusu, and Euikyung Shin for their assistance with the Project. This work was supported by the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (TRDRP 19FT-0089) and National Cancer Institute, Institutional Research Training Program in Cancer Control and Epidemiology (T32 CA009492).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors do not report any conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

The Institutional Review Board at University of Southern California approved the study protocol.

Informed Consent

All participants completed informed consent prior to beginning the survey.

References

  1. 1.
    Agaku IT, King BA, Dube SR (2014) Current cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2005–2012. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 63(2):29–34. https://doi.org/www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6302a2.htm?s_cid=mm6302a2_w#tab.
  2. 2.
    Song Y, Hofstetter C, Hovell M, Paik H, Park H, Lee J, Irvin V. Acculturation and health risk behaviors among Californians of Korean descent. Prev Med. 2004;39(1):147–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    An N, Cochran SD, Mays VM, McCarthy WJ. Influence of American acculturation on cigarette smoking behaviors among Asian American subpopulations in California. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(4):579–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim SS, Son H, Nam KA. The sociocultural context of Korean American men’s smoking behavior. West J Nurs Res. 2005;27(5):604–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huh J, Thing JP, Abramova ZS, Sami M, Unger JB. Place matters in perceived tobacco exposure among Korean American young adults: mixed methods approach. Subst Use Misuse. 2014;49(8):1054–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hofstetter CR, Hovell MF, Lee J, Zakarian J, Park H, Paik HY, Irvin V. Tobacco use and acculturation among Californians of Korean descent: a behavioral epidemiological analysis. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(3):481–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Botvin GJ, Baker E, Botvin EM, Dusenbury L, Cardwell J, Diaz T. Factors promoting cigarette smoking among black youth: a causal modeling approach. Addict Behav. 1993;18(4):397–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sussman S, Dent CW, Mestel-Rauch J, Johnson CA, Hansen WB, Flay BR. Adolescent nonsmokers, triers, and regular smokers’ estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence. When do overestimations occur and by whom? J Appl Soc Psychol. 1988;18:537–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Unger JB, Rohrbach LA. Why do adolescents overestimate their peers’ smoking prevalence? Correlates of prevalence estimates among California 8th-grade students. J Youth Adolesc. 2002;31(2):147–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reid JL, Manske SR, Leatherdale ST. Factors related to adolescents’ estimation of peer smoking prevalence. Health Educ Res. 2008;23(1):81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lim K, Kee C, Sumarni M, Lim KK, Tee EO, Christopher VM, Noruiza Hana M, Amal NM. Do adolescent overestimate the prevalence of smoking among their peers? Findings from a study in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia. Malays J Public Health Med. 2011;11(2):6–12.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lai MK, Ho SY, Lam TH. Perceived peer smoking prevalence and its association with smoking behaviours and intentions in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Addiction. 2004;99(9):1195–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tajfel H, Turner J. An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In: Austin WG, Worchel S, editors. The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey: Brooks/Cole; 1979. p. 33–47.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haslam S, Jetten J, Postmes T, Haslam C. Social identity, health and well-being: an emerging agenda for applied psychology. Appl Psychol. 2009;58(1):1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huh J, Sami M, Abramova ZS, Spruijt-Metz D, Pentz MA. Cigarettes, culture, and Korean American emerging adults: an exploratory qualitative study. West J Nurs Res. 2013;35(9):1205–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Terry D, Hogg M. Group norms and the attitude–behavior relationship: a role for group identification. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 1996;22:776–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ma GX, Shive SE, Ma XS, Toubbeh JI, Tan Y, Lan YJ, Zhai CK, Pei X. Social influences on cigarette smoking among mainland Chinese and Chinese Americans: a comparative study. Am J Health Stud. 2013;28(1):12–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tong EK, Nguyen T, Vittinghoff E, Pérez-Stable EJ. Light and intermittent smoking among California’s Asian Americans. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11(2):197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Blanco L, Nydegger LA, Sakuma K-LK, Tong EK, White MM, Trinidad DR. Increases in light and intermittent smoking among Asian Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014;16(6):904–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Unger JB, Gallaher P, Shakib S, Ritt-Olson A, Palmer PH, Johnson CA. The AHIMSA acculturation scale: a new measure of acculturation for adolescents in a multicultural society. J Early Adolesc. 2002;22(3):225–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jung-Choi KH, Khang YH, Cho HJ. Hidden female smokers in Asia: a comparison of self-reported with cotinine-verified smoking prevalence rates in representative national data from an Asian population. Tob Control. 2012;21(6):536–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Franca LR, Dautzenberg B, Falissard B, Reynaud M. Peer substance use overestimation among French university students: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ross L, Greene D, House P. The “False Consensus Effect”: an egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. J Exp Soc Psychol. 1977;13:279–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brodt S, Ross L. The role of stereotyping in overconfident social prediction. Soc Cognit. 1998;16(2):225–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ames DR. Strategies for social inference: a similarity contingency model of projection and stereotyping in attribute prevalence estimates. J Persnal Soc Psychol. 2004;87(5):573–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) Current smoking among adults by demographic characteristics. https://doi.org/www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/state_data/state_highlights/2010/pdfs/states/california.pdf.
  27. 27.
    Hoeffel EM, Rastogi S, Kim MO, Shahid H (2012) The Asian population: 2010. https://doi.org/www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-11.pdf.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Preventive MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations