The Contribution of Meaningfulness and Mindfulness to Psychological Well-Being and Mental Health: A Structural Equation Model

  • Antonio CregoEmail author
  • José Ramón Yela
  • María Ángeles Gómez-Martínez
  • Ahmed A. Karim
Research Paper


Experiencing meaning in life and practicing mindfulness in daily life are desirable features of a healthy and satisfactory life. However, the relationships among meaningfulness, mindfulness, psychological well-being and mental health outcomes remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mindfulness and meaning in life and to analyse how these variables are connected with life satisfaction, happiness, mental health and affect scores, regarded as outcome variables, after controlling for the effects of socio-demographic variables and religious attitudes. The data from a questionnaire survey (N = 1628), including measures of the presence of meaning in life, dispositional mindfulness, life satisfaction, happiness, mental health and affect, were analysed using correlation analyses, multiple regression analyses and structural equation modelling. Mindfulness and meaningfulness were significantly associated with one another. A structural equation model revealed that compared to mindfulness, meaningfulness was more strongly associated with positive well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, happiness and positive affect). Mindfulness, however, had a stronger relationship with negative well-being (i.e., negative affect and mental health issues). Moreover, meaningfulness was found to mediate the relationship between mindfulness and both positive and negative well-being. These findings provide new insights for psychological interventions promoting well-being and enhancing mental health through mindfulness- and meaningfulness-based approaches.


Mindfulness Meaning in life Well-being Life satisfaction Happiness Mental health 



We would like to thank anonymous Reviewers for their insightful comments on this research. We also thanks Ms. Radwa Khalil for her support.


Dr. Ahmed A. Karim was funded by the Ministry of Science, Research and Art, Baden Württemberg, Germany (Project number 02L14A093).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards for research involving human participants.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyPontifical University of SalamancaSalamancaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Health Psychology and NeurorehabilitationSRH Mobile UniversityRiedlingenGermany
  4. 4.Department of Psychology and MethodsJacobs UniversityBremenGermany

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