Human Capital Endowments and Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in Chile
- 5 Downloads
We study the gender life satisfaction gap by using a non-linear version of the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition to isolate the effect of human capital inequalities among men and women in Chile, a country with one of the lowest female labor force participation in the world. We test gender bias hypotheses through the way each individual values their own income in relation to their partner’s. We provide evidence the gender life satisfaction gap favoring men can be more than fully explained by the differences in endowments (e.g., income and education). Nonetheless, there are structural disparities in the way men and women value their endowments, especially their income and labor status. Regarding the partner’s income, we found personal income is always more valued than the partners, and that this difference is higher in the case of men. Finally, we find differences in the valuation of being out of the labor force. We interpret these findings as consequence of a high degree of sexism prevailing in Chile, which masks the full effect of material inequalities in people’s lives.
KeywordsSubjective well-being Generalized Ordered Regression Sexism Gender differences
This work has benefited from the comments of Marjorie Murray. We also thank the financial support for the Projects CIE01 from Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT), Centro de Estudios de Políticas y Prácticas en Educación (CEPPE) and Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT) No. 1140980.
- Becker, G. S. (1981). A treatise on the family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations, and satisfactions. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- CASEN. (2011). Encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional. Chile: Ministerio Desarrollo Social.Google Scholar
- Eid, M., & Diener, E. (2004). Global judgments of subjective well-being: Situational variability and long-term stability. Social Indicators Research, 65, 245–277. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SOCI.0000003801.89195.bc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fleurbaey, M., Schokkaert, E., & Decancq, K. (2009). What good is happiness?. Wilrijk: CORE.Google Scholar
- Gilbert, D. (2006). Stumbling on happiness. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
- INE. (2015). Mujeres en Chile y Mercado del Trabajo. Participación laboral femenina y brechas salariales. Santiago, Chile: Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas.Google Scholar
- Layard, R. (2005). Happiness: Lessons from a new science. Harmondsworth: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
- Long, S., & Freese, J. (2006). Regression models for categorical dependent variables using Stata (2nd ed.). New York: Stata Press.Google Scholar
- Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Rusting, C. L. (1999). Gender differences in well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 330–350). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Paredes, R., & Riveros, L. (1994). Gender wage gaps in Chile: A long term view. In A. Van Adams, R. Paredes & L. Riveros (Eds.), Estudios de Economía, Special Issue on Labor Markets, October.Google Scholar
- Stiglitz, J., Sen, A., & Fitoussi, J.-P. (2009). Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. Paris: Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress.Google Scholar
- Tanton, R., Mohanty, I., & Hogan, A. (2012). Reasons for homeostatic failure in subjective wellbeing. NATSEM Working Paper 12/18. Canberra, Australia: University of Canberra.Google Scholar
- Vieira Lima, S. (2014). Essays on economics and happiness. Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca. https://boa.unimib.it/handle/10281/51986?mode=full.9.
- Wilson, C. M., & Oswald, A. J. (2005). How does marriage affect physical and psychological health? A survey of the longitudinal evidence. IZA Discussion Paper No. 1619. https://ssrn.com/abstract=735205.