Advertisement

Integrating Philosophical and Psychological Accounts of Happiness and Well-Being

  • Sabrina IntelisanoEmail author
  • Julia Krasko
  • Maike Luhmann
Research Paper
  • 51 Downloads

Abstract

Philosophers have been interested in happiness and well-being since the Hellenic period. More recently, psychologists have begun to study how happy people are and what makes people’s lives go well. Today, these fields begin to converge, as philosophers and psychologists are interested in integrating the two disciplines. A central challenge for any interdisciplinary research is that disciplines often differ in their terminology. In this paper, we offer a novel approach to integrating philosophical and psychological accounts of happiness and well-being by describing these accounts on two independent continuous dimensions: degree of stability (from transient to stable) and psychological process (from affective to cognitive). This dimensional taxonomy highlights similarities and differences among the accounts and allows researchers to assess where philosophical and psychological accounts overlap and where they diverge. We first describe the methodological approach we used to develop our two-dimensional taxonomy, and then demonstrate how this taxonomy can be applied to a large number of existing theoretical accounts of happiness and well-being. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the dimensional approach and implications for future theoretical and empirical research.

Keywords

Happiness Well-being Dimensions Classification Philosophical and psychological accounts 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Preparation of this manuscript was supported by Grant #57313 awarded to Maike Luhmann by the Happiness and Well-Being Project, a joint program by the St. Louis University and the Templeton Foundation. We would like to thank Dr. Jussi Suikkanen (University of Birmingham, UK) and Prof. Dr. Wilfried Hinsch (University of Cologne, Germany) for their philosophical support. We would like to thank Marie von Rogal for her assistance in the literature search and for her help with this manuscript.

References

  1. Adams, R. M. (1999). Finite and infinite goods. A framework for ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alexandrova, A. (2017). A philosophy for the science of well-being. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeder, R. (2000). Human happiness and morality. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Press.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, F. M., & McKennell, A. C. (1980). Measures of self-reported well-being: Their affective, cognitive, and other components. Social Indicators Research, 8, 127–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being: Americans’ perceptions of life quality. Contemporary Sociology. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Annas, J. (1993). The morality of happiness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Annas, J. (2011). Intelligent virtue. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anusic, I., Lucas, R. E., & Donnellan, M. B. (2012). Dependability of personality, life satisfaction, and affect in short-term longitudinal data. Journal of Personality, 80, 33–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aristotle. (1999). The Nicomachean ethics (T. Irwin, 2nd ed., Trans. with Introduction, Notes, and Glossary). Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.Google Scholar
  10. Barry, B. (1965). Political argument. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  11. Bauer, J. J., & McAdams, D. P. (2004). Growth goals, maturity, and well-being. Developmental Psychology, 40, 114–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bauer, J. J., McAdams, D. P., & Pals, J. L. (2008). Narrative identity and eudaimonic well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 81–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bauer, J. J., Park, S. W., Montoya, R. M., & Wayment, H. A. (2015). Growth motivation toward two paths of eudaimonic self-development. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 185–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benditt, T. (1974). Happiness. Philosophical Studies, 25, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bentham, J. (1789). An introduction to the principles of morals and legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bishop, M. (2015). The good life: Unifying the philosophy and psychology of well-being. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brandt, R. B. (1979). A theory of the good and the right. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Brülde, B. (2007). Happiness theories of the good life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 15–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crisp, R. (2006). Hedonism reconsidered. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 73, 619–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  21. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Literacy and intrinsic motivation. Daedalus, 119, 115–140.Google Scholar
  22. Darwall, S. (1999). Valuing activity. Social Philosophy and Policy, 16, 176–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis, W. (1981). A theroy of happiness. American Philosophical Quarterly, 18, 111–120.Google Scholar
  24. Delle Fave, A., Brdar, I., Freire, T., Vella-Brodrick, D., & Wissing, M. P. (2011). The eudaimonic and hedonic components of happiness: Qualitative and quantitative findings. Social Indicators Research, 100, 185–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Delle Fave, A., Brdar, I., Wissing, M. P., Araujo, U., Castro Solano, A., Freire, T., et al. (2016). Lay definitions of happiness across nations: The primacy of inner harmony and relational connectedness. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eid, M. (2008). Measuring the immeasurable: Psychometric modeling of subjective well-being data. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 141–167). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Eid, M., & Diener, E. (2004). Global judgments of subjective well-being: Situational variability and long-term stability. Social Indicators Research Research, 65, 245–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Feldman, F. (2010). What is this thing called happiness?. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Finnis, J. (1980). Natural law and natural rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Fletcher, G. (2013). A fresh start for the objective-list theory of well-being. Utilitas, 25, 206–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Foot, P. (2003). Natural goodness. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Fowers, B. J. (2005). Virtue and psychology: Pursuing excellence in ordinary practices. Washington, DC: APA Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fowers, B. J. (2012). An Aristotelian framework for the human good. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 32, 10–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fowers, B. J. (2015). The evolution of ethics: Human sociality and the emergence of ethical mindedness. London: Palgrave/McMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fowers, B. J. (2016). Aristotle on eudaimonia: On the virtue of returning to the source. In J. Vittersø (Ed.), The handbook of eudaimonic well-being (pp. 67–83). New York: Springer, US.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fowers, B. J., Molica, C. O., & Procacci, E. N. (2010). Constitutive and instrumental goal orientations and their relations with eudaimonic and hedonic well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 139–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Furnham, A., & Cheng, H. (2000). Lay theories of happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1, 227–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gailliot, M. T. (2012). Happiness as surplus or freely available energy. Psychology, 3, 702–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gilbert, P., McEwan, K., Mitra, R., Franks, L., Richter, A., & Rockliff, H. (2008). Feeling safe and content: A specific affect regulation system? Relationship to depression, anxiety, stress, and self-criticism. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 182–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Griffin, J. (1986). Well-being: Its meaning, measurement and moral importance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Hall, A., & Tiberius, V. (2016). Well-being and subject dependence. In G. Fletcher (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of philosophy of well-being (pp. 175–186). Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Hare, R. M. (1981). Moral thinking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harsanyi, J. C. (1977). Morality and the theory of rational behaviour. Social Research, 44, 39–62.Google Scholar
  45. Haybron, D. M. (2008a). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid, & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17–43). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  46. Haybron, D. M. (2008b). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Larsen, & R. J. Eid (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 1–22).Google Scholar
  47. Heathwood, C. (2010). Welfare. In J. Skorupski (Ed.), Routledge companion to ethics. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Hitokoto, H., & Uchida, Y. (2015). Interdependent happiness: Theoretical importance and measurement validity. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 211–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hurka, T. (2015). The best things in life: A guide to what really matters. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Hursthouse, R. (1999). On virtue ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Huta, V. (2015). The complementary roles of eudaimonia and hedonia and how they can be pursued in practice. In S. Joseph (Ed.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 159–183). Hoboken: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Huta, V., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Pursuing pleasure or virtue: The differential and overlapping well-being benefits of hedonic and eudaimonic motives. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 735–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huta, V., & Waterman, A. S. (2014). Eudaimonia and its distinction from hedonia: Developing a classification and terminology for understanding conceptual and operational definitions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 1425–1456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jayawickreme, E., Tsukayama, E., & Kashdan, T. B. (2017). Examining the within-person effect of affect on daily satisfaction. Journal of Research in Personality, 71, 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. John, O. P., Naumann, L. P., & Soto, C. J. (2008). Paradigm shift to the integrative Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and conceptual issues. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality (pp. 114–158). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  56. Joshanloo, M. (2013). A comparison of western and Islamic conceptions of happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 1857–1874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Joshanloo, M. (2014). Eastern conceptualizations of happiness: Fundamental differences with western views. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 475–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jung, C. G. (1923). Psychological types. Oxford: Harcourt, Brace.Google Scholar
  59. Kagan, S. (1992). The limits of well-being. Social Philosophy and Policy, 9, 169–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kagan, S. (2009). Well-being as enjoying the good. Philosophical Perspective, 23, 253–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kahneman, D. (1999). Objective happiness. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 3–25). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  62. Kekes, J. (1982). Happiness. Mind, New Series, 91, 358–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kesebir, P., & Diener, E. (2008). In pursuit of happiness: Empirical answers to philosophical questions. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. King, L. A., & Napa, C. K. (1998). What makes life good? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kraut, R. (1979). Two conceptions of happiness. The Philosophical Review, 88, 167–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kraut, R. (2007). What is good and why: The ethics of wellbeing. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kristjánsson, K. (2013). Virtue and vice in positive psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Larsen, R. J., & Diener, E. (1987). Affect intensity as an individual difference characteristic: A review. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. LeBar, M. (2013). The value of living well. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Luhmann, M., Alcock, M., & Fassbender, I. (unpublished manuscript). Towards a dimensional taxonomy of event characteristics.Google Scholar
  72. MacLeod, A. K. (2015). Well-being: Objectivism, subjectivism or sobjectivism? Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 1073–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maslow, A. H. (1964). Religions, values, and peak-experiences. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Maslow, A. H. (1965). Self-actualization and beyond. Washington, DC: Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse.Google Scholar
  75. Maslow, A. H. (1968). Some educational implications of the humanistic psychologies. Harvard Educational Review, 38, 685–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McFall, L. (1989). Happiness. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  77. McMahan, E. A., & Estes, D. (2011a). Hedonic versus eudaimonic conceptions of well-being: Evidence of differential associations with self-reported well-being. Social Indicators Research, 103, 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McMahan, E. A., & Estes, D. (2011b). Measuring lay conceptions of well-being: The beliefs about well-being scale. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 267–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McMahon, D. M. (2018). From the paleolithic to the present: Three revolutions in the global history of happiness. In E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers. www.nobascholar.com.
  80. Mendola, J. (2006). Intuitive hedonism. Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, 128, 441–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Meynell, H. (1969). Human flourishing. Religious Studies, 5, 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mill, J. S. (1867). Utilitarianism. London: Longmans.Google Scholar
  83. Montague, R. (1966). Happiness. Proceeding of the Aristotelian Society, 67147156, 87–102.Google Scholar
  84. Murphy, M. C. (1999). The simple desire-fulfillment theory. Noûs, 33, 247–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Murphy, M. C. (2001). Natural law and practical rationality. New York: CUP.Google Scholar
  86. Nozick, R. (1990). The examined life philosophical meditations. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  87. Nussbaum, M. C. (2000). Women and human development: The capabilities approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Parfit, D. (1984). Reason and persons. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Peterson, C., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: The full life versus the empty life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6, 25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Railton, P. (1986). Facts and values. Philosophical Topics, 14, 95–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Railton, P. (2008). The problem of well-being: Respect, equality, and the self. UC Berkeley: Kadish Center for Morality, Law and Public Affairs. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/216255vs.
  92. Rauthmann, J. F., Gallardo-Pujol, D., Guillaume, E. M., Todd, E., Nav, C. S., Sherman, R. A., et al. (2014). The Situational Eight DIAMONDS: A taxonomy of major dimensions of situation characteristics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 677–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Raz, J. (1986). The morality of freedom. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  95. Rosati, C. S. (1995). Persons, perspectives, and full information accounts of the good. Ethics, 105, 296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Russel, D. C. (2012). Happiness for humans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Russell, J. A., & Carroll, J. M. (1999). On the bipolarity of positive and negative affect. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 3–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. The American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ryan, R. M., & Martela, F. (2016). Eudaimonia as a way of living: Connecting Aristotle with self determination theory. In J. Vittersø (Ed.), International handbooks of quality-of-life. Handbook of eudaimonic well-being (pp. 109–122). Cham: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ryff, C. D. (2014). Psychological well-being revisited: Advances in the science and practice of eudaimonia. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83, 10–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 13–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schimmack, U., Oishi, S., & Diener, E. (2002). Cultural influences on the relation between pleasant emotions and unpleasant emotions: Asian dialectic philosophies or individualism-collectivism? Cognition and Emotion, 16, 705–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Scruton, R. (1975). Reason and happiness. In R. S. Peters (Ed.), Nature and conduct (pp. 139–161). New York: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  108. Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  109. Sidgwick, H. (1874). The methods of ethics. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  110. Singer, P. (1979). Practical ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Sirgy, J. M., & Wu, J. (2009). The pleasant life, the engaged life, and the meaningful life: What about the balanced life? Journal of Happiness Studies, 10, 183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sobel, D. (1994). Full information accounts of well-being. Ethics, 104, 784–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sprigge, T. L. S. (1991). The greatest happiness principle. Utilitas, 3, 37–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Suikkanen, J. (2011). An improved whole life satisfaction theory of happiness. International Journal of Wellbeing, 1, 149–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sumner, L. W. (1996). Welfare, happiness & ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Tännsjö, T. (2007). Narrow hedonism. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 79–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tatarkiewicz, W. (1966). Happiness and time. International Phenomenological Society, 27, 1–10.Google Scholar
  118. Telfer, E. (1980). Happiness. London: Palgrave MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Thomas, D. A. L. (1968). Happiness. Philosophical Quarterly, 18, 97–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tiberius, V. (2006). Well-being: Psychological research for philosophers. Philosophy Compass, 5, 493–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tiberius, V. (2013a). Philosophical methods in happiness research. In S. David, I. Boniwell & A. Ayers (Eds.), The oxford handbook of happiness (pp. 315–325). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Tiberius, V. (2013b). Recipes for a good life: Eudaimonism and the contribution of philosophy. In A. S. Waterman (Ed.), The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonic functioning (pp. 19–38). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tiberius, V., & Plakias, A. (2009). Well-being. In J. Doris (Ed.), The moral psychology handbook (pp. 401–431). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Tov, W. (2018). Well-being concepts and components. In E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers. www.nobascholar.com Google Scholar
  125. Uchida, Y., & Ogihara, Y. (2012). Personal or interpersonal construal of happiness: A cultural psychological perspective. International Journal of Wellbeing, 2, 354–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Uchida, Y., & Oishi, S. (2016). The happiness of individuals and the collective. Japanese Psychological Research, 58, 125–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Veenhoven, R. (1994). Is happiness a trait? Tests of the theory that a better society does not make people happier. Social Indicators Research, 32, 101–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Vittersø, J. (2016). Do it! Activity theories and the good life. In E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers. www.nobascholar.com.Google Scholar
  129. Vittersø, J., Søholt, Æ. Y., Hetland, Æ. A., & Alekseeva, Æ. I. (2010). Was hercules happy? Some answers from a functional model of human well-being. Social Indicators Research, 95, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Von Wright, G. H. (1963). The variety of goodness. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  131. Waterman, A. S. (1990). Personal expressiveness: Philosophical and psychological foundations. Journal of Mind & Behavior, 11, 47–73.Google Scholar
  132. Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 678–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Waterman, A. S., Schwartz, S. J., & Conti, R. (2008). The implications of two conceptions of happiness (hedonic enjoyment and eudaimonia) for the understanding of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 41–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. WHOQOL Group. (1995). The World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL): Position paper from the World Health Organization. Social Science and Medicine, 41, 1403–1409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Woodard, C. (2013). Classifying theories of welfare. Philosophical Studies, 165, 787–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ruhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany

Personalised recommendations