An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Personal Leadership Program Designed to Promote Positive Outcomes for Adolescents
- 274 Downloads
While meta-analytic reviews of universal school-based social and emotional interventions indicate overall effectiveness, outcome effect sizes are often small. We report an evaluation of a high school-based Personal Leadership Program, designed to promote positive social, emotional, and motivational outcomes. Program and comparison group participants (n = 102) from South Australian high schools completed pre- and post-program measures of positive functioning: positive emotion, behavioral engagement, positive relations, meaning, and accomplishment, as well as self-esteem and goal setting. Additionally, teacher-reported student engagement was assessed. Program participants demonstrated greater improvement than the comparison group on all variables. Mixed between-within subjects ANOVAs, showed statistically significant time-by-group interactions for six out of nine variables, the exceptions being relationship with parents, relationship with classmates, and accomplishment. There were medium effect sizes for student- and teacher-rated engagement, and large effect sizes for positive emotion, meaning, self-esteem and goal setting. With findings demonstrating improvements in positive functioning across a range of measures of wellbeing this approach to building wellbeing in adolescents, drawing on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and goal setting theory should be further investigated using randomized control trials.
KeywordsAdolescents Intervention Social Emotional Motivational Wellbeing School
The cooperation of the Youth Opportunities Association (SA) Inc. is acknowledged.
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences. New York, NY: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper-Perennial.Google Scholar
- Department for Education and Child Development. (2017). Education for a stronger future: Department for Education and Child Development Strategic Plan. Adelaide, SA: Government of South Australia. https://www.decd.sa.gov.au/sites/g/files/net691/f/decd-strategic-plan.pdf. Retrieved 1 Mar 2018.
- Department for Education and Child Development. (n.d.). Student engagement matrix guidelines. Adelaide, SA: Government of South Australia. https://www.decd.sa.gov.au/sites/g/files/net691/f/student_engagement_matrix_guidelines.pdf?v=1455771936. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
- Dornbusch, S., & Steinberg, L. (1990). Measures of school engagement. Unpublished manuscript, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
- Duckworth, A. L., Steen, T. A., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Positive psychology in clinical practice. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 629–651. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.144154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Forneris, T., Danish, S. J., & Scott, D. L. (2007). Setting goals, solving problems, and seeking social support: Developing adolescents’ abilities through a life skills program. Adolescence, 42, 103–114.Google Scholar
- Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70.Google Scholar
- Keyes, C. L. M., & Lopez, S. J. (2002). Toward a science of mental health: Positive directions in diagnosis and interventions. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 45–59). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Maggs, J. L., Schulenberg, J., & Hurrelmann, K. (1997). Developmental transitions during adolescence: Health promotion implications. In J. Schulenberg, J. L. Maggs, & K. Hurrelmann (Eds.), Health risks and development transitions during adolescence (pp. 522–546). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Malecki, C. K., Demaray, M. K., Elliott, S. N., & Nolten, P. W. (1999). The Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University.Google Scholar
- Marshman, P. D. (2005). Choose your life. Adelaide, SA: Peter Marshman & Associates Pty. Ltd.Google Scholar
- Marshman, P. D. (n.d.). Youth opportunities personal leadership program. Adelaide, SA: Peter Marshman & Associates Pty. Ltd.Google Scholar
- Masten, A. S. (1994). Resilience in individual development: Successful adaptation despite risk and adversity. In M. C. Wang & E. W. Gordon (Eds.), Educational resilience in inner-city America: Challenges and prospects (pp. 3–25). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survival manual (5th Edn.). Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
- Reivich, K., & Shatté, A. (2002). The resilience factor: Seven keys to finding your inner strengths and overcoming life’s hurdles. New York: Broadway Books.Google Scholar
- Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and the adolescent self-image (reprint edition). Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
- Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
- Social Ventures Australia Consulting. (2011). Youth opportunities baseline social return on investment report. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar