Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 81–99 | Cite as

Suicide in Happy Places: Is There Really a Paradox?

  • Philip M. PendergastEmail author
  • Tim Wadsworth
  • Charis E. Kubrin
Research Paper


In 2011 researchers published a paper that exposed a puzzling paradox: the happiest states in the U.S. also tend to have the highest suicide rates. In the current study, we re-examine this relationship by combining data from the Multiple Mortality Cause-of-Death Records, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and the American Communities Survey to determine how subjective well-being and suicide are related across 1563 U.S. counties. We extend the original study in important ways: by incorporating both absolute and relative measures of subjective well-being; by examining the happiness-suicide association at a more suitable level of analysis; and by including a more robust set of control variables in the model. Contrary to the previous study, we do not observe any significant relationship, negative or positive, between the absolute and relative well-being of places and suicide rates at the county-level. Implications for the study of suicide rates and relative deprivation are discussed.


Suicide Subjective well-being Happiness Relative deprivation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of Colorado, BoulderBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Criminology, Law and Society, School of Social EcologyUniversity of California, IrvineIrvineUSA

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