Drifting Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Young Adults in Multiunit Housing

  • Louisa M. HolmesEmail author
  • Jasmin D. Llamas
  • Derek Smith
  • Pamela M. Ling
Original Paper


This study evaluated young adults’ exposure to drifting secondhand smoke in San Francisco County housing units using the 2014 Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey (N = 1363). Logistic and geographically weighted regression models were used to determine whether residing in multiunit housing or in areas with greater neighborhood disorder were risk factors for exposure, and how drifting smoke exposure varied spatially within San Francisco County. Residing in buildings with five or more units significantly increased the odds of reporting drifting smoke exposure [OR (3.5 1.3, 9.9)], but neighborhood disorder did not have a significant association in the fully adjusted logistic regression model. At the local level, however, neighborhood disorder was significantly associated with exposure in lower income residential and downtown areas. Multiunit housing was significantly associated with exposure across all neighborhoods.


Secondhand smoke Multiunit housing Tobacco control Health disparities Neighborhood disorder 



This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [National Cancer Institute U01-CA 154240 and National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities P60MD006902].

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louisa M. Holmes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jasmin D. Llamas
    • 2
  • Derek Smith
    • 3
  • Pamela M. Ling
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of GeographyState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA
  2. 2.School of Education and CounselingSanta Clara UniversitySanta ClaraUSA
  3. 3.Tobacco Free ProjectSan Francisco Department of Public HealthSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Center for Tobacco Control Research & Education, Department of General Internal MedicineUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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