Journal of Community Health

, Volume 44, Issue 6, pp 1193–1203 | Cite as

A Promising PrEP Navigation Intervention for Transgender Women and Men Who Have Sex with Men Experiencing Multiple Syndemic Health Disparities

  • Cathy J. RebackEmail author
  • Kirsty A. Clark
  • Dennis Rünger
  • Anne E. Fehrenbacher
Original Paper


Transgender women and MSM experience many stigma-related syndemic conditions that exacerbate HIV incidence and prevalence rates. While PrEP is an effective biomedical intervention to reduce HIV transmission, uptake and adherence of PrEP is low among transgender women and MSM experiencing multiple syndemic health disparities. This study tested the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of A.S.K.-PrEP (AssistanceServicesKnowledge-PrEP), a five-session peer navigator program, designed to link transgender women and MSM to PrEP. From September 2016 to March 2018, 187 participants (transgender women = 58; MSM = 129) enrolled. Results demonstrated that approximately 90% of transgender women and MSM were linked to PrEP; MSM linked more quickly [KW χ2(1) = 10.9, p < .001]. Most transgender women (80%) and MSM (70%) reported they were still taking PrEP at the 90-day follow-up evaluation. Findings indicated that A.S.K.-PrEP is a promising intervention for PrEP linkage, uptake and preliminary adherence among transgender women and MSM.


PrEP HIV prevention Transgender MSM Health disparities 



This program was supported by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), Center for Infectious Diseases, Office of AIDS, #15-11045. Drs. Reback and Fehrenbacher acknowledge additional support from the National Institute of Mental Health, #P30 MH58107. Dr. Fehrenbacher acknowledges additional support from the University of California, Los Angeles and the National Institute of Mental Health, #T32 MH109205.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Friends Research Institute, Inc.Los AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Center for HIV Identification, Prevention and Treatment ServicesUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public HealthUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

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