Journal of Community Health

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 201–218 | Cite as

Effectiveness of Interventions for Hepatitis B and C: A Systematic Review of Vaccination, Screening, Health Promotion and Linkage to Care Within Higher Income Countries

  • Elizabeth Ortiz
  • Brighid Scanlon
  • Amy Mullens
  • Jo DurhamEmail author


Viral hepatitis is a significant global health concern, particularly within low-middle income countries. Diseases historically affecting low-middle income countries, such as viral hepatitis, have become increasingly prevalent within high-income countries due to globalisation and mass international migration. High prevalence of viral hepatitis in migrant populations is of particular concern due to the associated morbidity and mortality, as well as the increased risk of vertical and horizontal transmission in the community. This is compounded by the asymptomatic nature of hepatitis, meaning many of those affected are unaware of their infection status. Long-term effects of viral hepatitis can include liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. Therefore, the health needs of vulnerable migrants within high-income countries due to issues associated with viral hepatitis require attention. This includes assessment of measures such as targeted health education, increased screening, linkage to appropriate treatment and follow-up care. Additionally, it is necessary to address migrant healthcare barriers, such as language, economic and social barriers. It is imperative that vulnerable migrant groups gain appropriate access to health services to prevent disease transmission and the widening of health-related disparities within high-income countries.


Viral-Hepatitis Migrants Immigrant Hepatitis B Hepatitis C 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10900_2019_699_MOESM1_ESM.docx (27 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 26 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth Ortiz
    • 1
  • Brighid Scanlon
    • 2
  • Amy Mullens
    • 3
  • Jo Durham
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Facultyof Medicine, School of Public HealthUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Health, School of Public Health and Social WorkQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.School of Psychology and CounsellingUniversity of Southern QueenslandIpswichAustralia

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