Risk Factors for Recurrent Injuries from Physical Violence Among African Men in The Gambia

  • Paul Bass
  • Wen-Yu Yu
  • Edrisa Sanyang
  • Mau-Roung LinEmail author
Original Paper


While men are known to be at high risk of recurrent injuries from physical violence, the risk factors in African men have not been investigated. We conducted a matched case-control study to identify factors associated with recurrent injuries from physical violence in The Gambia. Eligible participants were injured male patients aged ≥ 15 years. Over the 12-month study period, 257 cases with recurrent injuries from physical violence, and 257 control patients each from two control groups (violence controls and nonviolence controls) were recruited from eight emergency rooms located in six districts of the Greater Banjul Metropolitan Area, The Gambia. The two control groups matched cases at the same health facility, date of injury, and age, in which violence controls (VCs) experienced only one violence-related injury in the past 12 months and nonviolence controls (NCs) experienced no violence-related injuries. Results of the multivariable conditional logistic regression showed that for both the VC and NC groups, a polygamous family (ORVC, 3.62; ORNC, 2.79), > 8 family members (ORVC, 5.60; ORNC, 4.81), being brought up by a family relative (ORVC, 5.17; ORNC, 2.11), having smoked cigarettes in the past week (ORVC, 3.53; ORNC, 4.03), and perceiving no family support (ORVC, 1.12; ORNC, 1.19) were significantly associated with the occurrence of recurrent violent injuries. Furthermore, compared to the NCs, three additional factors of > 2 male siblings (ORNC, 1.84), low household income (ORNC, 3.11), and alcohol consumption in the past week (ORNC, 4.66) were significantly associated with the occurrence of recurrent violent injuries. These findings may fill in a knowledge gap that will be beneficial for developing effective intervention programs to reduce recurrent injuries from physical violence among African men.


Emergency room Men Risk factors Recurrent injuries Physical violence 



This work was supported by Taipei Medical University and Taipei Medical University Hospital (106TMU-TMUH-08) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST106-2314-B-038-046-MY3 and MOST105-2627-M-038-001), Taiwan.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Bass
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Wen-Yu Yu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Edrisa Sanyang
    • 5
  • Mau-Roung Lin
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public HealthTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.School of Public Health, College of Public HealthTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Emergency MedicineTaipei Medical University HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Public & Environmental Health, School of Medicine & Allied Health SciencesUniversity of The GambiaBrikamaThe Gambia
  5. 5.Department of Public Health, College of Health and Human ServicesWestern Kentucky UniversityBowling GreenUSA

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