What Can be Done to Reduce the Public Stigma of Gambling Disorder? Lessons from Other Stigmatised Conditions

  • Kirsten L. Brown
  • Alex M. T. RussellEmail author
Review Paper


Gambling is embedded in Australian cultural history, and perceived as a normal, legitimate leisure activity. Despite this normalisation, people who experience gambling problems are heavily stigmatised which can lead to a variety of harms that extend beyond the individual. The stigma from the general public appears to be based on a stereotype of a typical “problem gambler”—selfish, greedy, impulsive and irresponsible. However, research suggests that people experiencing gambling problems have widely varying characteristics and do not conform to this stereotype. Regardless of whether the stigma is justified, it is both present and problematic. Gamblers experiencing problems delay help-seeking due to feelings of shame and, not unwarranted, expectations of negative judgement because of the heavy stigma associated with the stereotype. As stigma is a primary barrier to treatment and a reason why gambling problems can take longer to acknowledge, it is important to understand and address how stigma can be reduced to minimise the negative consequences of gambling on individuals, their families and friends and the wider community. There is little research on reducing gambling-related stigma, so there is a need to examine strategies used in other stigmatised conditions, such as mental health, to understand the general principles of effective stigma reduction measures. Because gambling disorder is unique, well-hidden and consequently not well understood, there is a need to recognise that techniques used in other domains may differ in their effectiveness within the context of gambling stigma.


Stigma Stigma reduction Gambling disorder Contact Education Advocacy 



This study was conducted as part of the requirements of an Honours degree by the first author. The last author was supervisor on this Project.


Alex Russell has received funding from Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation; NSW State Government; Queensland Justice and Attorney-General; Gambling Research Australia; National Association for Gambling Studies; Australian Communications and Media Authority and the Alberta Gambling Research Institute. He has received industry funding for an evaluation of problem gambling amongst casino employees from Echo/Star Entertainment Group. He is also affiliated with the University of Sydney.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Approval was gained from the CQUniversity Human Research Ethics Committee—Approval number 2018-082.


  1. Afifi, T. O., Brownridge, D. A., MacMillan, H., & Sareen, J. (2010). The relationship of gambling to intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a nationally representative sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44(5), 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5 ® ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Appiah, O. (2006). Rich media, poor media: The impact of audio/video vs. text/picture testimonial ads on browsers’ evaluations of commercial web sites and online products. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 28(1), 73–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arboleda-Flórez, J., & Stuart, H. (2012). From sin to science: Fighting the stigmatization of mental illnesses. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(8), 457–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armstrong, A., & Carroll, M. (2017). Gambling activity in Australia. Melbourne: Australian Gambling Research Centre, Australian Institute of Family Studies.Google Scholar
  6. Ashubwe, A. F., & Miano, P. W. (2018). Gambling disorder: An overview with emphasis on psychological treatments. International Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling and Psychiatry, 3.Google Scholar
  7. Barrault, S., & Varescon, I. (2013). Cognitive distortions, anxiety, and depression among regular and pathological gambling online poker players. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 16(3), 183–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartholomew Eldredge, L. K., Markham, C. M., Ruiter, R. A. C., Kok, G., Fernandez, M. E., & Parcel, G. S. (2016). Planning health promotion programs: An intervention mapping approach. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Billieux, J., Schimmenti, A., Khazaal, Y., Maurage, P., & Heeren, A. (2015). Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4(3), 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blaszczynski, A. (2013). A critical examination of the link between gaming machines and gambling-related harm. The Journal of Gambling Business and Economics, 7(3), 55–76.Google Scholar
  11. Breen, R. B. (2004). Rapid onset of pathological gambling in machine gamblers: A replication. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 2(1), 44–49.Google Scholar
  12. Browne, M., Langham, E., Rawat, V., Greer, N., Li, E., Rose, J., et al. (2016). Assessing gambling-related harm in Victoria: A public health perspective. Melbourne: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.Google Scholar
  13. Canale, N., Vieno, A., Griffiths, M. D., Rubaltelli, E., & Santinello, M. (2015). How do impulsivity traits influence problem gambling through gambling motives? The role of perceived gambling risk/benefits. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29(3), 813–823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carroll, A., Rodgers, B., Davidson, T., & Sims, S. (2013). Stigma and help-seeking for gambling problems. Canberra: Australian National University.Google Scholar
  15. Cataldo, J. K., Jahan, T. M., & Pongquan, V. L. (2012). Lung cancer stigma, depression, and quality of life among ever and never smokers. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 16(3), 264–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook, J. E., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Meyer, I. H., & Busch, J. T. A. (2014). Intervening within and across levels: A multilevel approach to stigma and public health. Social Science and Medicine, 103, 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Corrigan, P. W., Markowitz, F. E., Watson, A., Rowan, D., & Kubiak, M. A. (2003). An attribution model of public discrimination towards persons with mental illness. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(2), 162–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S. B., Michaels, P. J., Rafacz, J. D., & Rüsch, N. (2012). Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: A meta-analysis of outcome studies. Psychiatric Services, 63(10), 963–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cowlishaw, S., & Kessler, D. (2016). Problem gambling in the UK: Implications for health, psychosocial adjustment and health care utilization. European Addiction Research, 22(2), 90–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crapanzano, K., Vath, R. J., & Fisher, D. (2014). Reducing stigma towards substance users through an educational intervention: Harder than it looks. Academic Psychiatry, 38(4), 420–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cunningham, J. A., Cordingley, J., Hodgins, D. C., & Toneatto, T. (2011). Beliefs about gambling problems and recovery: Results from a general population telephone survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27(4), 625–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Currie, S. R., Hodgins, D. C., Wang, J., El-Guebaly, N., & Wynne, H. (2008). In pursuit of empirically based responsible gambling limits. International Gambling Studies, 8(2), 207–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Decker, S. H., Ortiz, N., Spohn, C., & Hedberg, E. (2015). Criminal stigma, race, and ethnicity: The consequences of imprisonment for employment. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(2), 108–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Delfabbro, P. (2004). The stubborn logic of regular gamblers: Obstacles and dilemmas in cognitive gambling research. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Delfabbro, P. (2012). Australasian gambling review (5th ed.). Adelaide: Independent Gambling Authority.Google Scholar
  26. Delfabbro, P., & King, D. (2012). Gambling in Australia: Experiences, problems, research and policy. Addiction, 107(9), 1556–1561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Delfabbro, P., King, D., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014). From adolescent to adult gambling: An analysis of longitudinal gambling patterns in South Australia. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30(3), 547–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Delfabbro, P., Lahn, J., & Grabosky, P. (2005). Further evidence concerning the prevalence of adolescent gambling and problem gambling in Australia: A study of the ACT. International Gambling Studies. Scholar
  29. Derevensky, J. L., & Gilbeau, L. (2015). Adolescent gambling: Twenty-five years of research. The Canadian Journal of Addiction, 6(2), 4–12.Google Scholar
  30. Donaldson, P., Rockloff, M. J., Browne, M., Sorenson, C.-M., Langham, E., & Li, E. (2016). Attitudes towards gambling and gambling reform in Australia. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32(1), 243–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dowling, N., Smith, D., & Thomas, T. (2005). Electronic gaming machines: Are they the “crack-cocaine” of gambling? Addiction, 100(1), 33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dowling, N., Suomi, A., Jackson, A., Lavis, T., Patford, J., Cockman, S., et al. (2016). Problem gambling and intimate partner violence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 17(1), 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Echeburúa, E., González-Ortega, I., de Corral, P., & Polo-López, R. (2011). Clinical gender differences among adult pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27(2), 215–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ellis, G., & King, R. (2003). Recovery focused interventions: Perceptions of mental health consumers and their case managers. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 2(2), 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Feldman, D. B., & Crandall, C. S. (2007). Dimensions of mental illness stigma: What about mental illness causes social rejection? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(2), 137–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ferris, J. A., & Wynne, H. J. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  37. Flack, M., & Morris, M. (2015). Problem gambling: One for the money…? Journal of Gambling Studies, 31(4), 1561–1578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Flannigan, N., Miles, L. K., Quadflieg, S., & Neil Macrae, C. (2013). Seeing the unexpected: Counterstereotypes are implicitly bad. Social Cognition. Scholar
  39. Gainsbury, S. M., Hing, N., & Suhonen, N. (2014a). Professional help-seeking for gambling problems: Awareness, barriers and motivators for treatment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30(2), 503–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gainsbury, S. M., Russell, A. M. T., Hing, N., Wood, R., Lubman, D. I., & Blaszczynski, A. (2014b). The prevalence and determinants of problem gambling in Australia: Assessing the impact of interactive gambling and new technologies. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(3), 769–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  42. Goodie, A. S., & Fortune, E. E. (2013). Measuring cognitive distortions in pathological gambling: Review and meta-analyses. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(3), 730–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goodwin, B. C., Browne, M., Rockloff, M., & Rose, J. (2017). A typical problem gambler affects six others. International Gambling Studies, 17(2), 276–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Griffith, J. L., & Kohrt, B. A. (2016). Managing stigma effectively: What social psychology and social neuroscience can teach us. Academic Psychiatry, 40(2), 339–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hancock, L., & Smith, G. (2017). Critiquing the Reno Model I–IV international influence on regulators and governments (2004–2015)—the distorted reality of “Responsible Gambling”. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15(6), 1151–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Harrigan, K., Dixon, M., MacLaren, V., Collins, K., & Fugelsang, J. (2011). The maximum rewards at the minimum price: Reinforcement rates and payback percentages in multi-line slot machines. Journal of Gambling Issues, 26, 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hing, N., Holdsworth, L., Tiyce, M., & Breen, H. (2013). Stigma and problem gambling: Current knowledge and future research directions. International Gambling Studies, 14(1), 64–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hing, N., Nuske, E., & Gainsbury, S. (2011). Gamblers at risk and their help seeking behaviour. Lismore: Centre for Gambling Education & Research.Google Scholar
  49. Hing, N., Nuske, E., Gainsbury, S. M., & Russell, A. M. T. (2016a). Perceived stigma and self-stigma of problem gambling: Perspectives of people with gambling problems. International Gambling Studies. Scholar
  50. Hing, N., Nuske, E., Gainsbury, S. M., Russell, A. M. T., & Breen, H. (2016b). How does the stigma of problem gambling influence help-seeking, treatment and recovery? A view from the counselling sector. International Gambling Studies. Scholar
  51. Hing, N., & Russell, A. M. T. (2017). Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(3), 416–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hing, N., Russell, A. M. T., & Gainsbury, S. M. (2016c). Unpacking the public stigma of problem gambling: The process of stigma creation and predictors of social distancing. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5(3), 448–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hing, N., Russell, A. M. T., Gainsbury, S. M., & Nuske, E. (2016d). The public stigma of problem gambling: Its nature and relative intensity compared to other health conditions. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32(3), 847–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hing, N., Russell, A. M. T., & Hronis, A. (2016e). Behavioural indicators of responsible gambling consumption. Melbourne: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.Google Scholar
  55. Hing, N., Russell, A., Nuske, E., & Gainsbury, S. (2015). The stigma of problem gambling: Causes, characteristics and consequences. Victoria: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.Google Scholar
  56. Hing, N., Russell, A. M. T., Rockloff, M., Browne, M., Langham, E., Li, E., et al. (2018). Effects of wagering marketing on vulnerable adults. Melbourne: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.Google Scholar
  57. Hing, N., Russell, A., Tolchard, B., & Nower, L. (2016f). Risk factors for gambling problems: An analysis by gender. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32(2), 511–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hing, N., Russell, A. M. T., Vitartas, P., & Lamont, M. (2016g). Demographic, behavioural and normative risk factors for gambling problems amongst sports bettors. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32(2), 625–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hodgins, D. C., Mansley, C., & Thygesen, K. (2006). Risk factors for suicide ideation and attempts among pathological gamblers. The American Journal on Addictions, 15(4), 303–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Holdsworth, L., Nuske, E., Tiyce, M., & Hing, N. (2013). Impacts of gambling problems on partners: Partners’ interpretations. Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health, 3(1), 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Horch, J., & Hodgins, D. (2008). Public stigma of disordered gambling: Social distance, dangerousness, and familiarity. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(5), 505–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Horch, J., & Hodgins, D. (2013). Stereotypes of problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Issues, 28, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jones, E. E., Farina, A., Hastorf, A. H., Marcus, H., Miller, D. T., & Scott, R. A. (1984). Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York: Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  64. Konkolÿ Thege, B., Colman, I., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., Patten, S. B., Schopflocher, D., et al. (2015). Social judgments of behavioral versus substance-related addictions: a population-based study. Addictive Behaviors, 42, 24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kreek, M. J. (2011). Extreme marginalization: Addiction and other mental health disorders, stigma, and imprisonment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1231, 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kvaale, E. P., Haslam, N., & Gottdiener, W. H. (2013). The “side effects” of medicalization: A meta-analytic review of how biogenetic explanations affect stigma. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(6), 782–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee, T. J., & Kim, H.-K. (2014). Popularity and risks of electronic gaming machines (EGMs) for gamblers: The case of Australia. Tourism Analysis, 19(2), 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Li, E., Browne, M., Langham, E., Thorne, H., & Rockloff, M. (2018). Implicit associations between gambling and sport. Melbourne: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.Google Scholar
  69. Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (2001). Conceptualizing stigma. Annual Review of Sociology, 27(1), 363–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Link, B. G., Yang, L. H., Phelan, J. C., & Collins, P. Y. (2004). Measuring mental illness stigma. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(3), 511–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Major, B., & O’Brien, L. T. (2005). The social psychology of stigma. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 393–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Markham, F., & Young, M. (2015). “Big Gambling”: The rise of the global industry-state gambling complex. Addiction Research & Theory, 23(1), 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marlow, L. A. V., Waller, J., & Wardle, J. (2015). Does lung cancer attract greater stigma than other cancer types? Lung Cancer, 88(1), 104–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McGinty, E. E., Goldman, H. H., Pescosolido, B., & Barry, C. L. (2015). Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: Effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination. Social Science and Medicine, 126, 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mendes, W. B., Blascovich, J., Hunter, S. B., Lickel, B., & Jost, J. T. (2007). Threatened by the unexpected: Physiological responses during social interactions with expectancy-violating partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(4), 698–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Miller, H. E., & Thomas, S. (2017a). The “Walk of Shame”: A qualitative study of the influences of negative stereotyping of problem gambling on gambling attitudes and behaviours. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15(6), 1284–1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Miller, H. E., & Thomas, S. L. (2017b). The problem with “responsible gambling”: Impact of government and industry discourses on feelings of felt and enacted stigma in people who experience problems with gambling. Addiction Research & Theory, 26(2), 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Minchin, G. (2006). Sentencing problem gamblers in New Zealand. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 4(1), 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Ending discrimination against people with mental and substance use disorders: The evidence for stigma change. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  80. Nower, L., Eyrich-Garg, K. M., Pollio, D. E., & North, C. S. (2015). Problem gambling and homelessness: Results from an epidemiologic study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31(2), 533–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Palamar, J. J. (2013). An examination of beliefs and opinions about drug use in relation to personal stigmatization towards drug users. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45(5), 367–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., & Dovidio, J. F. (2008). Stigma and prejudice: One animal or two? Social Science and Medicine, 67(3), 358–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pickard, H. (2017). Responsibility without blame for addiction. Neuroethics, 10(1), 169–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Productivity Commission. (2010). Gambling. In Report no. 50. Canberra, ACT: Productivity Commission.Google Scholar
  85. Rintoul, A. C., Livingstone, C., Mellor, A. P., & Jolley, D. (2012). Modelling vulnerability to gambling related harm: How disadvantage predicts gambling losses. Addiction Research & Theory, 21(4), 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rockloff, M. J., & Hing, N. (2013). The impact of jackpots on EGM gambling behavior: A review. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29(4), 775–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rüsch, N., Angermeyer, M. C., & Corrigan, P. W. (2005). Mental illness stigma: Concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma. European Psychiatry, 20(8), 529–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Russell, A. M. T., Langham, E., & Hing, N. (2018). Social influences normalize gambling-related harm among higher risk gamblers. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(4), 1100–1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sakurai, Y., & Smith, R. G. (2003). Gambling as a motivation for the commission of financial crime. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  90. Thomas, A., Christensen, D., Deblaquiere, J., Armstrong, A., Moore, S., Carson, R., & Rintoul, A. (2016a). Review of electronic gaming machine pre-commitment features: Limit setting. Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS). Retrieved December 5, 2018 from
  91. Thomas, S., Bestman, A., Pitt, H., David, J., & Thomas, S. (2016b). Lessons for the development of initiatives to tackle the stigma associated with problem gambling. Melbourne: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.Google Scholar
  92. Thomas, S., Lewis, S., Westberg, K., & Derevensky, J. L. (2013). What influences the beliefs, behaviours and consumption patterns of “moderate risk” gamblers? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 11(4), 474–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Thomas, S., Pitt, H., Bestman, A., Randle, M., McCarthy, S., & Daube, M. (2018). The determinants of gambling normalisation: causes, consequences and public health responses. Melbourne: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.Google Scholar
  94. van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2008). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (2nd ed.). Belmont: Thomson Higher Education.Google Scholar
  95. Vasiliadis, S., & Thomas, A. (2016). Journeys through gambling: pathways to informal recovery. Melbourne: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.Google Scholar
  96. Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation. (2013). The responsible gambling guide. Melbourne.
  97. Williams, R. J., & Connolly, D. (2006). Does learning about the mathematics of gambling change gambling behavior? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(1), 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Winkler, P., Janoušková, M., Kožený, J., Pasz, J., Mladá, K., Weissová, A., et al. (2017). Short video interventions to reduce mental health stigma: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial in nursing high schools. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(12), 1549–1557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yücel, M., Carter, A., Harrigan, K., van Holst, R. J., & Livingstone, C. (2018). Hooked on gambling: A problem of human or machine design? The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(1), 20–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Health, Medical and Applied SciencesCQUniversityRockhamptonAustralia
  2. 2.Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied SciencesCQUniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations