Wagering Advertisements and Inducements: Exposure and Perceived Influence on Betting Behaviour
A proliferation of wagering advertising has raised concerns about its effects, especially on vulnerable gamblers. This study examined exposure to wagering advertisements and inducements, and their reported influence on the size, frequency and riskiness of bets placed—amongst regular bettors and by gambler risk group. An Ecological Momentary Assessment design minimised recall bias. After completing a baseline survey, 722 regular bettors completed up to 15 surveys administered on 5 days per week over three non-consecutive weeks. Data were analysed for the 316 race bettors and 279 sports bettors completing at least one survey. The results indicate that regular bettors have almost daily exposure to wagering advertising, including for inducements. The most frequently seen and influential advertisement types were direct messages (emails, texts and/or phone calls from wagering operators, which, in Australia, bettors are automatically opted-into when opening a betting account) and advertisements on betting websites or apps. Participants reported the most influential inducements to be: stake-back offers, multi-bet offers, match your stake or deposit offers, better odds/winnings inducements, happy hours, rewards programs, and cash out early offers. The findings indicate that wagering advertisements, including for inducements, are likely to be having powerful effects on regular bettors. On each day that respondents saw these advertisements (most days for most advertisement types), substantial minorities reported increased size and frequency of betting. Results did not vary by gambler risk group. Understanding which types of wagering advertising are associated with most gambling-related harm can inform advertising regulations, targeted public health interventions, and future research.
KeywordsWagering Betting Sports Races Advertising Inducements Marketing Problem gambling Gambling harm Ecological momentary assessment
Financial support to conduct this study was received from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.
This study was funded by the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Nerilee Hing has received research grants from the Australian Research Council, Gambling Research Australia, the Queensland Government, NSW Government, South Australian Government, Victorian Government, Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation, the Australian Communications and Media Authority, the Alberta Gambling Research Institute, and the Australian National Research Organisation for Women’s Safety. She has conducted unpublished consultancy work for Echo Entertainment, Singapore Pools and Sportsbet aimed at improving their responsible gambling practices. She declares no conflict of interest in relation to this manuscript. Alex M. T. Russell has received research grants from Gambling Research Australia, the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation, the Queensland Government, the Alberta Gambling Research Institute, and the National Association of Gambling Studies. He has conducted unpublished consultancy work for Echo/Star Entertainment, aimed at improving their responsible gambling practices in relation to gambling by their employees. He declares no conflict of interest in relation to this manuscript. Anna Thomas has received research grants from Gambling Research Australia, Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation and the Victorian Government. She has been paid to conduct peer reviews for Gambling Research Australia and the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation. She declares no conflict of interest in relation to this manuscript. Rebecca Jenkinson has received research grants from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation, the Victorian Government, the Australian Government Department of Health, the Australian Government Department of Social Services, the National Health and Medical Research Council, the National Drug Law Enforcement Fund, Australia’s National Research Organisation for Women’s Safety, and the Invergowrie Foundation. She works at the Australian Gambling Research Centre which is funded by the Australian Government. She declares no conflict of interest in relation to this manuscript.
Human and Animals Rights Statement
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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