Advertisement

Coexistence of Intimate Partner Violence and Child Maltreatment among Adolescents in Kosovo

  • Kaltrina Kelmendi
  • Zamira Hyseni DurakuEmail author
  • Liridona Jemini-Gashi
Original Article

Abstract

High levels of domestic and intimate partner violence are continuously reported in Kosovo, and child maltreatment by parents is common. This study explores the coexistence of intimate partner violence and child maltreatment and its association with sociodemographic factors. A sample of 208 Kosovar adolescents was assessed using the Conflict Tactic Scale and the Parent-Child Conflict Tactic Scale. The results showed interplay between experiencing intimate partner violence and witnessing violence between parents. The hierarchical logistic regression results showed that adolescents exposed to psychological intimate partner violence had a higher chance of experiencing psychological aggression and corporal punishment by their parents, when controlling for sociodemographic factors (gender, average grades, parents’ education, number of sisters/brothers, and financial income). The findings foresee the necessity of comprehensive approaches to family violence phenomena that affect family members, including parents and children. They indicate the importance of considering poly-victimization in the assessment and prioritization of such cases.

Keywords

Child maltreatment Intimate partner violence Adolescents Kosovo Sociodemographic factors Co-occurrence 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

References

  1. Alhabib, S., Nur, U., & Jones, R. (2010). Domestic violence against women: Systematic review of prevalence studies. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 369–382.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-009-9298-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appel, A. E., & Holden, G. W. (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: A review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 578–599.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.12.4.578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bellis, M. A., Hughes, K., Leckenby, N., Jones, L., Baban, A., Kachaeva, M., et al. (2014). Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviours in young adults: Surveys in eight eastern European countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 92, 641–655.  https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.13.129247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benavides, M., Almonte, J. L. J., & de Leon Marquina, M. P. (2015). The co-occurrence of domestic and child violence in urban Peru: Evidence from three regions. Journal of Family Violence, 30, 1045–1053.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.84.2.191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bourassa, C. (2007). Co-occurrence of interparental violence and child physical abuse and its effect on the adolescents’ behavior. Journal of Family Violence, 22(8), 691–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breiding, M., Basile, K. C., Smith, S. G., Black, M. C., & Mahendra, R. R. (2015). Intimate partner violence surveillance: uniform definitions and recommended data elements. Version 2.0.(Retrieved from https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/31292).
  7. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cappa, C., & Khan, S. M. (2011). Understanding caregivers’ attitudes towards physical punishment of children: Evidence from 34 low- and middle-income countries. Child Abuse and Neglect, 35, 1009–1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Casanueva, C., Jonathan, K., & Zolotor, A. (2007). Intimate partner violence and child abuse and neglect. In K. A. Kendall-Tackett & S. M. Giacomoni (Eds.), Intimate partner violence (pp. 23-1–23-17). Kingston: Civic Research Institute.Google Scholar
  10. Chan, K. L. (2011). Children exposed to child maltreatment and intimate partner violence: A study of co-occurrence among Hong Kong Chinese families. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 532–542.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.03.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan, K. L. (2015). Association between intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a representative student sample in Hong Kong. Violence Against Women, 21, 500–515.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801215569080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cox, C. E., Kotch, J. B., & Everson, M. D. (2003). A longitudinal study of modifying influences in the relationship between domestic violence and child maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence, 18(1), 5–17.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021497213505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeKeseredy, W. S., & Schwartz, M. D. (1998). Measuring the extent of woman abuse in intimate heterosexual relationships: A critique of the conflict tactics scales. US Department of Justice Violence Against Women Grants Office Electronic Resources.Google Scholar
  14. Dong, M., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Williamson, D. F., Thompson, T. J., Loo, C. M., & Giles, W. H. (2004). The interrelatedness of multiple forms of childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 771–784.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.01.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Edleson, J. L. (1999). The overlap between child maltreatment and woman battering. Violence Against Women, 5(2), 134–154.  https://doi.org/10.1177/107780129952003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elsaesser, C. M., & Voisin, D. R. (2015). Correlates of polyvictimization among African American youth: An exploratory study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(17), 3022–3042.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514554424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farnsworth, N., Qosaj-Mustafa, A., Banjska, I., Berisha, A., & Morina, D. (2015). No more excuses: an analysis of attitudes, incidence, and institutional responses to domestic violence in Kosovo. Prishtina: Kosovo Women’s Network.Google Scholar
  18. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2007). Poly-victimization: A neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(1), 7–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2009). Lifetime assessment of poly-victimization in a national sample of children and youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(7), 403–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Hamby, S. L., & Ormrod, R. (2011). Polyvictimization: Children's exposure to multiple types of violence, crime, and abuse. National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin NCJ235504 (pgs. 1–12). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  21. Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H. A. F. M., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., & Watts, C. H. (2006). Prevalence of intimate partner violence: Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence. The Lancet, 368, 1260–1269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(06)69523-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grych, J., Hamby, S., & Banyard, V. (2015). The resilience portfolio model: Understanding healthy adaptation in victims of violence. Psychology of Violence, 5(4), 343.Google Scholar
  23. Hamby, S., & Grych, J. (2013). Evidence-based interventions need to be more systematic, not more disruptive. American Psychologist, 68(6), 476–477.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hamby, S., Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., & Ormrod, R. (2010). The overlap of witnessing partner violence with child maltreatment and other victimizations in a nationally representative survey of youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(10), 734–741.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2010.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hamby, S., Smith, A., Mitchell, K., & Turner, H. (2016). Poly-victimization and resilience portfolios: Trends in violence research that can enhance the understanding and prevention of elder abuse. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 28(4–5), 217–234.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08946566.2016.1232182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamby, S., Taylor, E., Jones, L., Mitchell, K. J., Turner, H. A., & Newlin, C. (2018). From poly-victimization to poly-strengths: Understanding the web of violence can transform research on youth violence and illuminate the path to prevention and resilience. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(5), 719–739.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517744847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hart, A. (2001). Mann-Whitney test is not just a test of medians: differences in spread can be important. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 323(7309), 391.Google Scholar
  28. Hartley, C. C. (2002). The co-occurrence of child maltreatment and domestic violence: Examining both neglect and child physical abuse. Child Maltreatment, 7, 349–358.  https://doi.org/10.1177/107755902237264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heise, L. L. (1998). Violence against women: An integrated, ecological framework. Violence Against Women, 4, 262–290.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801298004003002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Herrenkohl, T. I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E. A., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Moylan, C. A. (2008). Intersection of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 9(2), 84–99.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838008314797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holt, S., Buckley, H., & Whelan, S. (2008). The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: A review of the literature. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(8), 797–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jaffe, P. G., Campbell, M., Hamilton, L. H., & Juodis, M. (2012). Children in danger of domestic homicide. Child Abuse and Neglect-the International Journal, 36(1), 71–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jouriles, E. N., McDonald, R., Slep, A. M. S., Heyman, R. E., & Garrido, E. (2008). Child abuse in the context of domestic violence: Prevalence, explanations, and practice implications. Violence and Victims, 23(2), 221–235.  https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.23.2.221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Katz, E. (2016). Beyond the physical incident model: How children living with domestic violence are harmed by and resist regimes of coercive control. Child Abuse Review, 25(1), 46–59.  https://doi.org/10.1002/car.2422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kelmendi, K. (2015). Domestic violence against women in Kosovo: A qualitative study of women’s experiences. Journal of interpersonal violence, 30(4), 680–702.Google Scholar
  36. Kelmendi, K., & Baumgartner, F. (2017). Exploring violence socialization and approval of intimate partner violence among university students in Kosovo. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517692336.
  37. Lamers-Winkelman, F., Schipper, J. C. D., & Oosterman, M. (2012). Children's physical health complaints after exposure to intimate partner violence. British Journal of Health Psychology, 17, 771–784.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8287.2012.02072.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lansford, J. E., Alampay, L. P., Al-Hassan, S., Bacchini, D., Bombi, A. S., Bornstein, M. H., et al. (2010). Corporal punishment of children in nine countries as a function of child gender and parent gender. International Journal of Pediatrics, 2010, 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/672780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leung, P. W. S., Wong, W. C. W., Chen, W. Q., & Tang, C. S. K. (2008). Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in southern China: A large scale school based survey. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 2(1), 27.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-2-27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Margolin, G., & Gordis, E. B. (2003). Co-occurrence between marital aggression and parents' child abuse potential: The impact of cumulative stress. Violence and Victims, 18, 243–258.  https://doi.org/10.1891/vivi.2003.18.3.243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2003). Preventing the intergenerational continuity of antisocial behavior: Implications of partner violence. In D. P. Farrington & J. W. Coid (Eds.), Early prevention of adult antisocial behaviour (p. 2). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Moylan, C. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E. A., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (2010). The effects of child abuse and exposure to domestic violence on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Family Violence, 25(1), 53–63.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-009-9269-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Øverlien, C. (2010). Children exposed to domestic violence: Conclusions from the literature and challenges ahead. Journal of Social Work, 10(1), 80–97.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1468017309350663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Överlien, C., & Hydén, M. (2009). Children’s actions when experiencing domestic violence. Childhood, 16(4), 479–496.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568209343757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pinheiro, P. S. (2006). World report on violence against children. United Nations secretary- general's study on violence against children. Geneva: ATAR Roto Presse SA.Google Scholar
  46. Radford, L., Corral, S., Bradley, C., & Fisher, H. L. (2013). The prevalence and impact of child maltreatment and other types of victimization in the UK: Findings from a population survey of caregivers, children and young people and young adults. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(10), 801–813.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Renner, L. M., & Slack, K. S. (2006). Intimate partner violence and child maltreatment: Understanding intra- and intergenerational connections. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30(6), 599–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Russell, D., Springer, K. W., & Greenfield, E. A. (2010). Witnessing domestic abuse in childhood as an independent risk factor for depressive symptoms in young adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 448–453.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Saunders, B. E. (2003). Understanding children exposed to violence: Toward an integration of overlapping fields. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 356–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Slep, A. M. S., & O'Leary, S. G. (2001). Examining partner and child abuse: Are we ready for a more integrated approach to family violence? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4(2), 87–107.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1011319213874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith, C. A., Elwyn, L. J., Ireland, T. O., & Thornberry, T. P. (2010). Impact of adolescent exposure to intimate partner violence on substance use in early adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 219–230.  https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2010.71.219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sousa, C., Herrenkohl, T. I., Moylan, C. A., Tajima, E. A., Klika, J. B., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (2011). Longitudinal study on the effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence, parent-child attachments, and antisocial behavior in adolescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(1), 111–136.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260510362883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Straus, M. A. (2010). Prevalence, societal causes, and trends in corporal punishment by parents in world perspective. Law and Contemporary Problems, 73(2), 1–30.Google Scholar
  54. Straus, M. A., & Hamby, S. L. (1997). Measuring physical & psychological maltreatment of children with the conflict tactics scales. In G. Kaufman Kantor & J. L. Jasinski (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary research perseptive on family violence. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Straus, M., Hamby, S., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised conflict tactics scales (CTS2) development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17, 283–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Finkelhor, D., Moore, D. W., & Runyan, D. (1998). Identification of child maltreatment with the parent-child conflict tactics scales: Development and psychometric data for a national sample of American parents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22, 249–270.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0145-2134(97)00174-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Turner, H. A., Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2010). Poly-victimization in a national sample of children and youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 323–330.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2009.11.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. UNICEF. (2010). Child disciplinary practices at home: Evidence from a range of low- and middle-income countries. New York: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  59. UNICEF. (2015). Preliminary findings from multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) 2013–2014. Retrieved from http://www.childinfo.org/files/Kosovo_(UNSCR_1244)_2013-14_Key_Findings_Report.pdf
  60. UNICEF. (2017). Child protection. Retrieved from https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-protection/violence/violent-discipline/
  61. Yates, T. M., Dodds, M. F., Sroufe, L. A., & Egeland, B. (2003). Exposure to partner violence and child behavior problems: A prospective study controlling for child physical abuse and neglect, child cognitive ability, socioeconomic status, and life stress. Development and Psychopathology, 15(1), 199–218.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s09545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaltrina Kelmendi
    • 1
  • Zamira Hyseni Duraku
    • 1
    Email author
  • Liridona Jemini-Gashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PrishtinaPrishtinëKosovo

Personalised recommendations