Characterization of Desi Ghee Extracted by Different Methods Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

  • Naveed Ahmad
  • M. SaleemEmail author
  • Babar Manzoor Atta
  • S. Mahmood


In the current study, the effect of ghee extraction methods (direct cream DC, milk butter MB and milk skin MS) on its molecular composition has been investigated using Fluorescence spectroscopy. The excitation wavelength of 300 nm was found the best to produce pronounced spectral signatures of beta-carotene, vitamins and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in both cow and buffalo ghee types. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied on the spectral data to visualize the classification among ghee samples extracted by three methods. Both cow and buffalo ghee contain spectral signatures of vitamin A, E, K, D and CLA which has been verified through plotting loading vectors. The analysis of loading plots has been suggested that for cow ghee, MS extraction method conserve relatively higher concentration of beta carotene while DC and MB methods are a good choice for preserving relatively more concentrations of vitamins D, E and K. Similarly, for buffalo ghee, MS extraction method appear with higher concentration of CLA, whereas DC extraction method looks to preserve relatively higher concentration of vitamin A while MB method retains relatively low concentration of CLA and vitamins as compared to other two methods.


Cow and buffalo desi ghee Ghee extraction methods: Direct cream (DC) Milk butter (MB) Milk skin (MS) Fluorescence spectroscopy Beta-carotene Vitamins A, E, D, K Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) Principal component analysis (PCA) 



Dr. Naveed Ahmad is very grateful that the National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP) Islamabad has provided the necessary research facilities and also thankful to ORIC MUST for providing the research support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsMirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST)MirpurPakistan
  2. 2.Agri. & Biophotonics Division, National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), College Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS)IslamabadPakistan

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