Advertisement

The Journal of Ethics

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 317–332 | Cite as

Animalism, Abortion, and a Future Like Ours

  • Andrea SauchelliEmail author
Article

Abstract

Marquis’ future-like-ours argument against the morality of abortion assumes animalism—a family of theories according to which we are animals. Such an assumption is theoretically useful for various reasons, e.g., because it provides the theoretical underpinning for a reply to the contraception-abstinence objection. However, the connection between the future-like-ours argument and one popular version of animalism can prove lethal to the former, or so I argue in this paper.

Keywords

Animalism Abortion Identity Future-like-ours argument Biological individuality Personal ontology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Many thanks to the anonymous reviewers of this journal for their helpful suggestions.

References

  1. Bailey, Andrew. 2015. Animalism. Philosophy Compass 10(12): 867–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, Lynne Rudder. 2000. Persons and Bodies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, Lynne Rudder. 2005. When Does a Person Being? Social Philosophy and Policy 22(2): 25–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blatti, Stephan. 2014. Animalism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/animalism/. Accessed Nov 2018.
  5. Boonin, David. 2003. A Defense of Abortion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Boniolo, Giovanni, and Massimiliano Carrara. 2004. On Biological Identity. Biology and Philosophy 19(3): 443–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradley, Ben. 2004. When is Death Bad for the One Who Dies? Noûs 38(1): 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradley, Ben. 2009. Well-being and Death. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carter, W.R. 1982. Do Zygotes Become People? Mind 91(361): 77–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clarke, Ellen. 2010. The Problem of Biological Individuality. Biological Theory 5(4): 312–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Conee, Earl. 1999. Metaphysics and the Morality of Abortion. Mind 108(432): 619–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies, Jamie A. 2014. Life Unfolding. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. DeGrazia, David. 2005. Human Identity and Bioethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DeGrazia, David. 2012. Creation Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dupré, John. 2014. Animalism and the Persistence of Human Organisms. The Southern Journal of Philosophy 52: 6–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dupré, John, and Daniel J. Nicholson. 2018. A Manifesto for a Processual Philosophy of Biology. In Everything Flows, ed. John Dupré and Daniel J. Nicholson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Evnine, Simon. 2011. Constitution and Composition. Protosociology 27: 212–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Feldman, Fred. 1992. Confrontations with the Reaper: A Philosophical Study of the Nature and Value of Death. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Findaly, J.K., et al. 2007. Human Embryo: A Biological Definition. Human Reproduction 22(4): 905–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guay, Alexandre, and Thomas Pradeu (eds.). 2016. Individuals Across the Sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Harman, Elizabeth. 2003. The Potentiality Problem. Philosophical Studies 114(1–2): 173–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hershenov, David. 2016. Four-Dimensional Animalism. In Animalism, ed. Stephan Blatti and Paul Snowdon, 208–228. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hull, David. 1992. Individual. In Keywords in Evolutionary Biology, ed. Evelyn Fox Keller and Elisabeth Lloyd. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Johnston, Mark. 1987. Human Beings. Journal of Philosophy 84: 59–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koch-Hershenov, Rose. 2006. Totipotency, Twinning, and Ensoulment at Fertilisation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31: 139–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lewis, David. 1976/1983. Survival and Identity. Reprinted with Postscripts in David Lewis. In Philosophical Papers, Vol. 1, 55–77. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Mackie, David. 1999. Personal Identity and Dead People. Philosophical Studies 95: 219–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Marquis, Don. 1989. Why Abortion is Immoral. Journal of Philosophy 86: 183–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marquis, Don. 1997. An Argument that Abortion is Wrong. In Ethics in Practice, ed. Hugh LaFollette, 91–102. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  30. Marquis, Don. 2002. Does Metaphysics have Implications for the Morality of Abortion? Southwest Philosophy Review 18: 73–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marquis, Don. 2006. Abortion and the Beginning and End of Human Life. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 34(1): 16–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marquis, Don. 2007. Abortion Revisited. In The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics, ed. Bonnie Steinbock, 395. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Marquis, Don. 2013. The Deliberately Induced Abortion of a Human Pregnancy Is Not Ethically Justiflable. In Contemporary Debates in Bioethics, ed. Arthur L. Caplan and Robert Arp, 120–128. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. McMahan, Jeff. 2002. The Ethics of Killing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mills, Eugene. 2008. The Egg and I: Conception, Identity, and Abortion. Philosophical Review 117(3): 323–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mills, Eugene. 2013. Early Abortion and Personal Ontology. Acta Analytica 28: 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morris, Jason. 2012. Substance Ontology Cannot Determine the Moral Status of Embryos. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37: 331–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nagel, Thomas. 1970. Death. Noûs 4(1): 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Norcross, Alastair. 1990. Killing, Abortion, and Contraception: A Reply to Marquis. The Journal of Philosophy 87(5): 268–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Olson, Eric. 1997a. The Human Animal. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Olson, Eric. 1997b. Was I Ever a Fetus? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57(1): 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Olson, Eric. 2004. Animalism and the Corpse Problem. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82(2): 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Olson, Eric. 2007. What Are We? A Study in Personal Ontology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Olson, Eric. 2015. What Does it Mean to Say That We Are Animals? Journal of Consciousness Studies 22(11–12): 84–107.Google Scholar
  45. Pepper, John, and Matthew Herron. 2008. Does Biology Need an Organism Concept? Biological Reviews 83: 621–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pradeau, Thomas. 2010. What is an Organism? History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32: 247–267.Google Scholar
  47. Sadler, T.W. 2015. Langman’s Medical Embryology. 13th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.Google Scholar
  48. Sauchelli, Andrea. 2017. The Animal, the Corpse, and the Remnant-Person. Philosophical Studies 174(1): 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sauchelli, Andrea. 2018a. Personal Identity and Applied Ethics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Sauchelli, Andrea. 2018b. The Future-Like-Ours Argument, Animalism, and Mereological Universalism. Bioethics 32(3): 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schoenwolf, Gary, et al. 2015. Larsen’s Human Embryology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.Google Scholar
  52. Setiya, Kieran. 2014. The Ethics of Existence. Philosophical Perspectives 28(1): 291–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shoemaker, David. 2007. Personal Identity and Practical Concerns. Mind 116(462): 317–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Silverstein, Harry. 2013. The Evil of Death One More Time: Parallels between Time and Space. In The Metaphysics and Ethics of Death, ed. J.S. Taylor. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Smith, Barry, and Berit Brogaard. 2003. Sixteen Days. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28(1): 45–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Snowdon, Paul. 1990. Persons, Animals, and Ourselves. In The Person and the Human Mind: Issues in Ancient and Modern Philosophy, ed. C. Gill, 83–107. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  57. Snowdon, Paul. 2014. Persons, Animals, Ourselves. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Steinbock, Bonnie. 1992/2011. Life Before Birth. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Steward, Helen. 2013. Processes, Continuants, and Individuals. Mind 122(487): 781–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stout, Rowland. 2003. The Life of a Process. In Pragmatic Process, ed. G. Debrock, 145–157. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
  61. Thornton, Allison K. 2016. Varieties of Animalism. Philosophy Compass 11(9): 515–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tzinman, Rina. 2018. Is Romeo Dead? On the Persistence of Organisms. Synthese 195(9): 4081–4105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Van Inwagen, Peter. 1990. Material Beings. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Vogelstein, Eric. 2016. Metaphysics and the Future-Like-Ours Argument Against Abortion. Journal of Ethics 20(4): 419–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wiggins, David. 1980. Sameness and Substance. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  66. Wilson, Jack A. 2010. Ontological Butchery: Organism Concepts and Biological Generalizations. Philosophy of Science 67: 3.Google Scholar
  67. Wolfe, Charles T. 2010. Do Organisms Have an Ontological Status? History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32(2–3): 195–232.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyLingnan UniversityTuen MunHong Kong SAR

Personalised recommendations