The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a vector of many human diseases such as yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika. As insecticide resistance has been widely reported, chemical repellents have been adopted as alternative options for mosquito and mosquito-borne disease control. This study characterized the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in different types of antennal olfactory sensilla in Ae. aegypti to 48 chemicals that exhibited repellent activity in various insect species. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed from ORNs in response to these chemicals and differential tuning properties were also observed among ORNs. Remarkable excitatory responses were recorded from the ORNs in sensilla SST1, SST2, SBTI, SBTII, and LST2, while inhibitory activities were detected from a neuron in sensillum SST2 in response to several terpene/terpenoid compounds. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of neuronal responses were found to be compound-specific and concentration-dependent. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the response to each compound across ORNs in seven types of olfactory sensilla in Ae. aegypti revealed that odor reception depended not only on chemical class but also specific chemical structure. Results of this study give new insights into the sensory physiology of Aedes mosquitoes to the chemical repellents and should contribute to the development of new repellent reagents for human protection.
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This project was supported by Award Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station (AAES) Multistate/Hatch Grants ALA08-045 and ALA015-1-10026 to N.L. The Orlando strain used in this study was a generous gift from Dr. James Becnel (USDA, ARS, Mosquito and Fly Research Unit). The authors thank two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on the manuscript.
Conceived and designed the study: NL, ZC, and F.L. Performed the experiments: ZC. Prepared the materials: NL. Wrote the paper: NL, ZC, and FL.
This project was supported by Award Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station (AAES) Multistate/Hatch Grants ALA08–045 and ALA015–1-10026 to N.L.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
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