Advertisement

Writing Errors in Deaf Children

  • Alejandra Herrera-MarmolejoEmail author
  • Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos
  • Eliana Katherine Gamboa García
  • César Mejía Z.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

This article is aimed at deaf children literacy and addresses the error frequency in a writing sample. The dataset comes from a writing word task. The writing errors was classified into two types: lexical and phonological. The sample was composed of 199 deaf users of sign language, 15 deaf with hearing prosthesis, and 44 hearing children. All the participants were students of elementary school. As expected, the results show significant differences in type error (lexical vs. phonological) only in the deaf signer’s group, with higher values in errors related to lexical route. However, we also found a positive correlation between phonological errors and the number of coded words in the deaf group.

Keywords

Deafness Writing errors Deaf literacy Phonological route Lexical route 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

The data come from the project “Estudio del desarrollo cognitivo de niños y niñas con discapacidad auditiva a través de la herramienta VISOR en las ciudades de Cali, Bogotá, Medellín y Cartagena” (Study of Cognitive development in hearing disabled children, through the use of VISOR tool, in the cities of Cali, Bogotá, Medellín and Cartagena), executed in the year 2015. This study was funded by the association and cooperation agreement No. 76.25.15.474 between Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar and the Universidad de San Buenaventura-Cali.

All procedures performed in this study involved human participants and, therefore, were revised and approved for the ethical standards of the institutional research committee of the Universidad de San Buenaventura-Cali. Overall, the study abided by the principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki.

Informed Consent

All the parents and the school managers signed the informed consent.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they don’t have any conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aaron, P. G., Keetay, V., Boyd, M., Palmatier, S., & Wacks, J. (1998). Spelling without phonology: A study of deaf and hearing children. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 10, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alegría, J. & Domínguez, A.B. (2009). Los alumnos sordos y la lengua escrita. Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Inclusiva, 3(1), 95–111. Recuperado de http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F8/ART11924/alumnos_sordos_y_lengua_Escrita.pdf
  3. Antia, S. D., Reed, S., & Kreimeyer, K. H. (2005). Written language of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in public schools. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 10(3), 243–255.  https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/eni026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bustos, M. T. (2008). Exploring emergent literacy behaviors of Filipino deaf children. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 16(1), 101–110. Recuperado de http://xsite.dlsu.edu.ph/research/journals/taper/pdf/200706/bustos.pdf
  5. Cardona Cardona, M., & Cadavid Ruiz, N. (2013). Perfil lector de niños con y sin retraso lector en la ciudad de Cali (Colombia). Psicología desde el Caribe, 30 (2), 257-275. Recuperado de http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/213/21328601004.pdf
  6. Chamberlain, C. & Mayberry, R. (2000). Theorizing about the relation between American sign language and reading. En C. Chamberlain y J. Morford (Eds), Language acquisition by eye. (pp. 221–259). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. Colombo, L., Arfe, B., & Bronte, T. (2011). The influence of phonological mechanisms in written spelling of profoundly deaf children. Reading and Writing, 25(8), 2021–2038.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9343-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cuetos, F. (1989). Lectura y escritura de palabras a través de la ruta fonológica. Infancia y aprendizaje. 45, (pp. 71–84). Recuperado de: https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=48321
  9. Cuetos, F. (2009). Psicología de la escritura. Madrid: Wolters Kluwer España.Google Scholar
  10. Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In California State Department of Education (Ed.). Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework. (pp. 3–49). Los Angeles: National Dissemination and Assessment Center.Google Scholar
  11. De la Calle, A., & Aguilar, M., & Navarro, J. (2016). Desarrollo evolutivo de la conciencia fonológica: ¿Cómo se relaciona con la competencia lectora posterior?. Revista de Investigación en Logopedia, 1, 22–41. Recuperado de: https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=350846066002
  12. Dehaene, S. (2009). Reading in the brain: The new science of how we read. New York: Penguin books.Google Scholar
  13. Dolz, J., Gagnon, R., Mosquera, S., & Sánchez, V. (2013). Producción escrita y dificultades de aprendizaje. Barcelona: Graó.Google Scholar
  14. Dostal, H., & Wolbers, K. (2014). Developing language and writing skills of deaf and hard of hearing students: A simultaneous approach. Literacy Research and Instruction, 53(3), 245–268.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19388071.2014.907382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fariña, N., Duñabeitia, J. A., & Carreiras, M. (2017). Phonological and orthographic coding in deaf skilled readers. Cognition, 168, 27–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.06.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Field, A., & Wilcox, R. (2017). Robust statistical methods: A primer for clinical psychology and experimental psychopathology researchers. Behavior Research and Therapy, 98, 19–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Figueroa, V., & Lissi, M. (2005). La lectura en personas sordas: consideraciones sobre el rol del procesamiento fonológico y la utilización del lenguaje de señas. Estudios pedagógicos (Valdivia), 31(2), 105–119.  https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-07052005000200007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gaustad, M. (2002). Deaf and hearing students morphological knowledge applied to printed English. American Annals of the Deaf, 147(5), 5–21.  https://doi.org/10.1353/aad.2012.0264.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gutiérrez, R., & Luque De La Rosa, A. (2014). Estudio comparativo de las ideas del alumnado sordo y oyente sobre los procesos de escritura y sus dificultades. Educatio siglo XXI, 32(2), 305–324.  https://doi.org/10.6018/j/202271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harris, M., & Moreno, C. (2004). Deaf children's use of phonological coding: Evidence from reading, spelling, and working memory. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9(3), 253–268.  https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/enh016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Heiling, K. (1999). La lectura y la escritura en los niños sordos en contextos bilingües. En A. Domínguez, & C. Velasco A. (coord.), Lenguaje escrito y sordera. Enfoques Teóricos y Derivaciones Prácticas. Salamanca: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca. Recuperado de https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=997834
  22. Herrera Fernández, V., & Chacón Macchiavello, D., & Saavedra Coronado, F. (2016). Evaluación de la escritura de estudiantes sordos bilingües. Estudios Pedagógicos, XLII (2), 171-191. Recuperado de http://revistas.uach.cl/index.php/estped/article/view/1936
  23. Herrera, V.; Puente, A.; Alvarado, J.; & Ardila, A. (2007). Códigos de lectura en sordos: la dactilología y otras estrategias visuales y kinestésicas. Revista latinoamericana de Psicología, 39(2), 269-286. Recuperado de http://institutodelasordera.cl/crims/docs/codigos-de-lectura-en-sordos.pdf
  24. Hirshorn, E., Dye, M., Hauser, P., Supalla, T., & Bavelier, D. (2015). The contribution of phonological knowledge, memory, and language background to reading comprehension in deaf populations. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hirsh-Pasek, K. (1987). The metalinguistics of fingerspelling: An alternate way to increase reading vocabulary in congenitally deaf readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 455–474.  https://doi.org/10.2307/747702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holmer, E., Heimann, M., & Rudner, M. (2016). Evidence of association between sing language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 48, 145–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2015.10.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Izzo, A. (2002). Phonemic awareness and reading ability. An investigation with young readers who are deaf. American Annals of the Deaf, 174(4), 18–28.  https://doi.org/10.1353/aad.2012.0242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leybaert, J. (1993). Reading in the deaf: The roles of phonological codes. Part of: M. Marschark & D. Clark (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on deafness (pp.311-337). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Recuperado de http://hdl.handle.net/2013/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/75679
  29. Leybaert, J., & Lechat, J. (2001). Variability in deaf children’s spelling: The effect of language experience. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 554–562.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.93.3.554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lissi, M.R., Svartholm, K., & González, M. (2012). El Enfoque Bilingüe en la Educación de Sordos: sus implicancias para la enseñanza y aprendizaje de la lengua escrita. Estudios pedagógicos (Valdivia), 38(2), 299-320. Recuperado de http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=173524998018
  31. Lissi, M. R., Sebastián, C., Iturriaga, C., & Vergara, M. (2017). Chilean deaf adolescents’ experiences with reading: Beliefs and practices associated to different types of reading activities. Deafness and Education International, 19(2), 84–94.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14643154.2017.1363450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Londoño-Muñoz, N; Jiménez-Jiménez, S; González-Alexander, D.C. & Solovieva, Y. (2016). Análisis de los errores en la lectura y en el lenguaje escrito en niños de Educación Primaria. Ocnos: Revista de Estudios sobre Lectura, 15, 97-113. Recuperado de https://cesco.revista.uclm.es/index.php/ocnos/article/view/ocnos_2016.15.1.931
  33. Lynas, W. (1994). Communication options in the education of deaf children. London: Whurr Publishers Ltd..Google Scholar
  34. Marmolejo-Ramos, F., & Tian, S. (2010). The shifting boxplot. A boxplot based on essential summary statistics around the mean. International Journal of Psychological Research, 3(1), 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Marscharck, M. (1997). Learning to read and write. Part of: M. Marscharck (Ed.), Psychological development of deaf children (pp. 203-227). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Marscharck, M & Wauter, L. (2008). Language comprehension and learning by deaf students. Part of: Marscharck, M & Hauser, P. Deaf cognition, foundations and outcomes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Mayberry, R. I., del Giudice, A. A., & Lieberman, A. M. (2011). Reading achievement in relation to phonological coding and awareness in deaf readers: A meta-analysis. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16, 164–188.  https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/enq049.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Mayer, C. (2010). The demands of writing and the deaf write. Part of: M. Marschark, P. Spencer (Eds.), Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education, (Vol. 2, pp. 144-155). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Mayer, C. & Wells, G. (1996). Theoretical and review articles can the linguistic interdependence theory support a bilingual-bicultural model of literacy education for deaf students? Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, pp. 93-107. Recuperado de https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6275/288cb6213c7124a0cb9430692d18459577db.pdf
  40. Mayer, C. & Wells, G. (1997). The question remains: A rejoinder to Mason Ontario Institute for Studies in Educat. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2, 280-282. Recuperado de https://academic.oup.com/jdsde/article/2/4/280/389098
  41. Mejía, C., Rocha, L., & Caicedo, S. (Eds.). (2018). Los niños sordos en Colombia. Retos para la educación y la inclusión. Cali: Editoral Bonaventuriana.Google Scholar
  42. Miller, P. (2007). The role of phonology in the word decoding skills of poor readers: Evidence from individuals with prelingual deafness or diagnosed dyslexia. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 385–408.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-007-9057-5.
  43. Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia (2015). Derechos Básicos de Aprendizaje. Lenguaje. Recuperado de http://www.mineducacion.gov.co/1759/w3-article339975.html
  44. Narr, R. F. (2008). Phonological awareness and decoding in deaf/hard-of-hearing students who use visual phonics. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 13(3), 405–416.  https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/enm064.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Neuhaus, J., & McCulloch, C. (2011). Generalized linear models. WIREs Computational Statistics, 3, 407–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. O’Brien, B. A., Mohamed, M. B. H., Yussof, N. T., & Ng, S. C. (2019). The phonological awareness relation to early reading in English for three groups of simultaneous bilingual children. Reading and Writing, 32, 909–937.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-018-9890-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Olson, A., & Caramazza, A. (2004). Orthographic structure and deaf spelling errors: Syllables, letter frequency, and speech. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57A(3), 385–417.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02724980343000396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Padden, C. & Ramsey, C. (1993). Deaf culture and literacy. American Annals of the Deaf 138(2), 96-99. Recuperado de https://muse.jhu.edu/article/385628/summary.
  49. Prinz, P., & Strong, M. (1998). ASL proficiency and English literacy within a bilingual deaf education model. Topics in Language Disorders, 18(4), 47–60.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00011363-199808000-00006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Quintanar, S., Lázaro, E. & Solovieva, Y. (2007). Aproximación histórico-cultural: Evaluación de los trastornos del aprendizaje. En Eslava, J. Quintanar, L Mejía, L. & Solovieva, Y. (Ed.), Los trastornos del aprendizaje: Perspectivas neuropsicológicas (pp. 184–226). Bogotá: Editorial Magisterio.Google Scholar
  51. Rathmann, C., Mann, G., & Morgan, G. (2007). Narrative structure and narrative. Development in Deaf Children, Deafness & Education International, 9(4), 187–196.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dei.228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rocha, L., Mejía, C. & Guerrero, D. (2018). Desempeños en lectoescritura y competencias comunicativas en niños sordos colombianos usuarios de Lengua de Señas. En Mejía C., Rocha, L., & Caicedo, S. (Eds.), Los niños sordos en Colombia: Retos para la educación y la inclusión (pp. 29–47). Cali: Editorial Bonaventuriana.Google Scholar
  53. Rodda, M., Cumming, C. & Fewer, D. (1993). Memory, learning, and language: Implications for deaf education. En M. Marscharck & M. Clark (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on deafness (pp.339–352). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  54. Rodríguez, M., Mejía, C. & Guerrero, D. (2018). Sonar. Batería para la evaluación cognitiva de niños sordos. En Mejía C., Rocha, L., & Caicedo, S. (Eds.), Los niños sordos en Colombia: Retos para la educación y la inclusión (pp. 169–186). Cali: Editorial Bonaventuriana.Google Scholar
  55. Rusell, G. S. (2016). La escritura en sordos. Una propuesta metodológica para trabajar la sintaxis y el léxico desde el enfoque de español como lengua segunda y extranjera (Tesis de doctoral). Recuperada de https://eprints.ucm.es/38881/1/T37682.pdf
  56. Sacks, O. (1989). Seeing voices: A journey into the world of the deaf. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  57. Schley, S., & Albertini, J. (2005). Assessing the writing of deaf college students: Reevaluating a direct assessment of writing. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 10(1), 96–105.  https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/eni006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Siegler, R. (2006). Microgenetic analyses of learning. In: Kuhn, D. & Siegler, R. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 469–484). Recuperado de http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~siegler/siegler06hnbk.pdf
  59. Signorini, A. & Borzone, A. (2003). Aprendizaje de la lectura y escritura en español. El predominio de las estrategias fonológicas. Interdisciplinaria, 20(1), 5-30. Recuperado de http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/180/18020102.pdf
  60. Sirois, P., Boisclair, A., & Giasson, J. (2008). Understanding of the alphabetic principle through invented spelling among hearing-impaired children learning to read and write: Experimentation with a pedagogical approach. Journal of Research in Reading, 31, 339–358.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2008.00378.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sotomayor, C., Molina, D., Bedwell, P., & Hernández, C. (2013). Caracterización de problemas ortográficos recurrentes en alumnos de escuelas municipales chilenas de 3°, 5° y 7° básico. Revista signos, 46(81), 105–131.  https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-09342013000100005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Staden, A., & Roux, N. (2010). The efficacy of fingerspell coding and visual imaging techniques in improving the spelling proficiency of deaf signing elementary-phase children: A south African case study. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 22, 581–594.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-010-9196-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stanovich, K. (2000). Progress in understanding reading: Scientific foundations and new frontiers. Recuperado de https://books.google.es/books?hl=es&lr=&id=hoH9xMSIGr4C&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&ots=e1hxOhXb-E&sig=DLsQy4xxPDo6lKdzP2F_999L8Qg#v=onepage&q&f=false
  64. Strassman, B., & Schirmer, B. (2013). Teaching writing to deaf students: Does research offer evidence for practice? Deaf students and writing: An overview. Educación especial y de remediación, 34(3), 166–179.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932512452013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Taeschner, T., Devescovi, A., & Volterra, V. (1988). Affixes and function word in the written language of the deaf children. Applied Psycholonguistics, 9, 385–401.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400008079.
  66. Thierfelder, P., & Stapleton, P. (2016). Errors in the written English of native users of sign language: An exploratory case study of Hong Kong deaf students. System, 58, 12–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Viñals, F., Vega, O. & Alvarez-Duque, M. (2003). Aproximación neurocognitiva de las alteraciones de la lecto-escritura como base de los programas de recuperación en pacientes con daño cerebral. Revista Española de Neuropsicología, 5 (3-4), 227–249.Google Scholar
  68. Wang, Q., & Andrews, J. (2017). Literacy instruction in primary level deaf education in China. Deafness & Education International, 19(2), 63–74.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14643154.2017.1344464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wauters, L., Knoors, H., Vervloed, M., & Aarnoutse, C. (2001). Sign facilitation in word recognition. The Journal of Special Education, 35, 31–40.  https://doi.org/10.1177/002246690103500104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Werfel, K., Douglas, M., & Ackal, L. (2016). Small group phonological awareness training for pre-kindergarten children with hearing loss who wear cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Deafness and Education International, 18(3), 134–140.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14643154.2016.1190117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilcox, R. (2017). Introduction to robust estimation and hypothesis testing (4th ed.). Academic Press.Google Scholar
  72. Williams, C. (2011). Adapted interactive writing instruction with kindergarten children who are deaf or hard of hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 156(1), 23–34.  https://doi.org/10.1353/aad.2011.0011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Williams, C., & Mayer, C. (2015). Writing in young deaf children. Review of Educational Research, 85(4), 630–666.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654314564882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wolbers, K., Graham, S., Dostal, H., & Bowers, L. (2014). A description of ASL features in writing. Ampersand, 1, 19–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amper.2014.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zhang, H., & Roberts, L. (2019). The role of phonological awareness and phonetic radical awareness in acquiring Chinese literacy skills in learners of Chinese as a second language. System, 81, 163–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ziegler, J., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 3–29.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio de PsicologíaUniversidad de San BuenaventuraCaliColombia
  2. 2.Centre for Change and Complexity in LearningThe University of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.Instituto de PsicologíaUniversidad del ValleCaliColombia

Personalised recommendations