Impact of Inclusive Soccer Program on Psychosocial Development of Children with and without Intellectual Disabilities

  • Yonjoong Ryuh
  • Poram Choi
  • Juntack Oh
  • Chih-Chia Chen
  • Yongho LeeEmail author


Erroneous perception of “disability” in typically developing children leads to the exclusion of children with intellectual disabilities in sport. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of inclusive soccer (INS) program on ameliorating adverse behavior in children with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 40 children, with half having intellectual disabilities (n = 20). Both the experimental and comparison groups consisted of 10 children with and without ID, respectively. The experimental group participated in an INS whereas the comparison group participated in a segregated soccer program. The Withdrawn Behavior Checklist (WBC) and Social Distance Scale (SDS) were measured repeatedly for children with and without ID, respectively. A mixed-design ANOVA was conducted for data analysis. There were significant main effects on time, group, and interaction for both SDS and WBC of the experimental group, except between-group difference on WBC. The comparison group did not show any significant change. The social distance of children toward peers with ID and withdrawn behavior of children with ID have been reduced. The INS could provide benefits for the psychosocial development of children on both populations toward inclusion.


Behavioral intention Social distance Withdrawn behavior Theory of planned behavior 



We appreciate Jin Ho Ryu and Hee Joung Joung for helping us with participant recruitment and data collection.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

The study was approved by Institutional Review Board in our university. All parents/legal guardians signed an informed consent form, and children assented.

Conflict of Interest

No conflict of interest has been declared.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yonjoong Ryuh
    • 1
  • Poram Choi
    • 1
  • Juntack Oh
    • 2
  • Chih-Chia Chen
    • 1
  • Yongho Lee
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyMississippi State UniversityMS StateUSA
  2. 2.Department of KinesiologyTexas Woman’s UniversityDentonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physical EducationSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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