Presurgical Psychological Evaluation: Risk Factor Identification and Mitigation

  • Andrew R. BlockEmail author
  • Ryan J. Marek


Presurgical psychological evaluations (PPEs) are becoming an established component of the surgical process, though methods of conducting PPEs are variable. There is a lack of clarity about the goals of PPEs, the types of information that should be included, and the process for integrating information and making recommendations to the referring physicians/surgeons. This review proposes an empirically supported model for PPEs that is systematic, but flexible enough to be utilized across the broad range of surgical evaluations. This five-step method is termed the Risk Identification and Mitigation (RIM) model and is discussed in detail. The RIM model presented in this review can both serve as a structure to be utilized in under-researched PPE areas and as a stimulus for future empirical investigations.


Surgical Health Assessment Psychopathology Mitigating 



This study has no associated funding.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Andrew R. Block and Ryan J. Marek receive research funding from the University of Minnesota Press.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with humans performed by any of the authors. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with humans performed by any of the authors and, thus, no informed consent was necessary.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Texas Back InstitutePlanoUSA
  2. 2.College of Human Sciences and HumanitiesUniversity of Houston – Clear LakeHoustonUSA

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