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Validation of an Expanded Measure of Integrated Care Provider Fidelity: PPAQ-2


This study aimed to validate the factor structure of the expanded Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Adherence Questionnaire (PPAQ-2), which is designed to assess provider fidelity to both the Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) and collaborative care management (CCM) models of integrated primary care. Two-hundred fifty-three integrated care providers completed self-reports of professional background, perceptions of clinic integration and related practice barriers, and the PPAQ-2. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to assess the theorized factor structure and criterion validity was assessed through correlational analysis. Factor analyses demonstrated adequate fit with the data and acceptable to excellent composite reliabilities across five PCBH domains and five CCM domains. Validity was demonstrated by correlations between adherence scores and measures of clinic integration and barriers to fidelity. The PPAQ-2 is a psychometrically sound measure that can be used in future integrated care dismantling studies to identify provider behaviors that best predict patient outcomes.

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This study was funded by the VA Center for Integrated Healthcare at the VA Western New York Healthcare System. The information provided in this study does not represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States Government.

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Correspondence to Gregory P. Beehler.

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Conflict of interest

Gregory P. Beehler, Jennifer S. Funderburk, Paul R. King, Kyle Possemato, John A. Maddoux, Wade R. Goldstein, Michael Wade have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

 All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standard of the responsible committee on human experimentation of the VA Western New York Healthcare System and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. As an anonymous provider survey, this study was deemed exempt from Institutional Review Board review.

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Beehler, G.P., Funderburk, J.S., King, P.R. et al. Validation of an Expanded Measure of Integrated Care Provider Fidelity: PPAQ-2. J Clin Psychol Med Settings 27, 158–172 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880-019-09628-0

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  • Guideline adherence
  • Integrated primary care
  • Mental health services
  • Primary health care
  • Program evaluation