Advertisement

Injury Severity and Depressive Symptoms in a Post-acute Brain Injury Rehabilitation Sample

  • Matthew R. PowellEmail author
  • Allen W. Brown
  • Danielle Klunk
  • Jennifer R. Geske
  • Kamini Krishnan
  • Cassie Green
  • Thomas F. Bergquist
Article

Abstract

This study explored the relationship between injury severity and depressive symptoms for treatment-seeking individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Mayo Classification System was used to classify TBI severity in 72 participants who completed the Patient Health Questionnaire at admission and at dismissal from rehabilitation. Patients with mild TBI reported more depressive symptoms than those with moderate or severe TBI at admission and at dismissal. Although injury severity groups differed by gender composition, gender had no effect on severity of depressive symptoms. All participants reported fewer depressive symptoms at dismissal from rehabilitation, including lower endorsement of dysphoria by discharge. Participants with mild TBI, however, continued to report depressive symptoms of a mild severity at dismissal, with residual problems with anhedonia. These findings underscore the benefit of interdisciplinary post-acute rehabilitation services for persons with TBI of any severity, including those with mild injury.

Keywords

Depression Injury severity Mild brain injury Rehabilitation Traumatic brain injury 

Abbreviations

CBT

Cognitive behavioral therapy

MCS

Mayo Classification System

PHQ-9

Patient Health Questionnaire

PTSD

Posttraumatic stress disorder

TBI

Traumatic brain injury

Notes

Funding

This study received no funding for creation of the database, analysis of the data, or any other aspect of the study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Matthew R. Powell, Allen W. Brown, Danielle Klunk, Jennifer R. Geske, Kamini Krishnan, Cassie Green, Thomas F. Bergquist declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

The Mayo Clinic Institutional Review Board approved this study, which was considered to pose minimal risk to patients. The data, which consisted of patient responses to questionnaires, were collected from patient medical records and coded in a manner to ensure confidentiality; no specimens were collected.

Informed Consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required (the requirement was waived after institutional review board review).

References

  1. Alexander, M. P. (1992). Neuropsychiatric correlates of persistent postconcussive syndrome. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 7, 60–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alway, Y., Gould, K. R., Johnston, L., McKenzie, D., & Ponsford, J. (2016). A prospective examination of Axis I psychiatric disorders in the first 5 years following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Psychological Medicine, 46, 1331–1341.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291715002986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Batten, S. V., & Pollack, S. J. (2008). Integrative outpatient treatment for returning service members. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 928–939.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belanger, H. G., Kretzmer, T., Vanderploeg, R. D., & French, L. M. (2010). Symptom complaints following combat-related traumatic brain injury: Relationship to traumatic brain injury severity and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16, 194–199.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617709990841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belanger, H. G., Vanderploeg, R. D., & Kretzmer, T. (2009). Symptom complaints following combat-related TBI: Relationship to TBI severity and PTSD. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 23, 570.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13854040902867551.Google Scholar
  6. Bombardier, C. H., Fann, J. R., Ludman, E. J., Vannoy, S. D., Dyer, J. R., Barber, J. K., & Temkin, N. R. (2017). The relations of cognitive, behavioral, and physical activity variables to depression severity in traumatic brain injury: Reanalysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 32, 343–353.  https://doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bombardier, C. H., Fann, J. R., Temkin, N. R., Esselman, P. C., Barber, J., & Dikmen, S. S. (2010). Rates of major depressive disorder and clinical outcomes following traumatic brain injury. JAMA, 303, 1938–1945.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bombardier, C. H., Hoekstra, T., Dikmen, S., & Fann, J. R. (2016). Depression trajectories during the first year after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 33, 2115–2124.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2015.4349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brooks, B. L., Silverberg, N., Maxwell, B., Mannix, R., Zafonte, R., Berkner, P. D., & Iverson, G. L. (2018). Investigating effects of sex differences and prior concussions on symptom reporting and cognition among adolescent soccer players. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 46, 961–968.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546517749588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cicerone, K. D., Dahlberg, C., Malec, J. F., Langenbahn, D. M., Felicetti, T., Kneipp, S., … Catanese, J. (2005). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 1681–1692.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2005.03.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cicerone, K. D., Langenbahn, D. M., Braden, C., Malec, J. F., Kalmar, K., Fraas, M., … Ashman, T. (2011). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 2003 through 2008. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 519–530.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2010.11.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clark, D. C., Fawcett, J., Salazar-Grueso, E., & Fawcett, E. (1984). Seven-month clinical outcome of anhedonic and normally hedonic depressed inpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 1216–1220.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.141.10.1216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooper, D. B., Bowles, A. O., Kennedy, J. E., Curtiss, G., French, L. M., Tate, D. F., & Vanderploeg, R. D. (2017). Cognitive rehabilitation for military service members with mild traumatic brain injury: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 32, E1–E15.  https://doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Covassin, T., & Bay, E. (2012). Are there gender differences in cognitive function, chronic stress, and neurobehavioral symptoms after mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury? Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 44, 124–133.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JNN.0b013e318252737d.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deary, V., Chalder, T., & Sharpe, M. (2007). The cognitive behavioural model of medically unexplained symptoms: A theoretical and empirical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 781–797.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2007.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dikmen, S. S., Bombardier, C. H., Machamer, J. E., Fann, J. R., & Temkin, N. R. (2004). Natural history of depression in traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85, 1457–1464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dimaggio, G., & Shahar, G. (2017). Behavioral activation as a common mechanism of change across different orientations and disorders. Psychotherapy (Chic), 54, 221–224.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pst0000117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Donders, J., & Pendery, A. (2017). Clinical utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in the assessment of major depression after broad-spectrum traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 98, 2514–2519.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2017.05.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ernst, J., Faller, H., Koch, U., Brahler, E., Harter, M., Schulz, H., … Mehnert, A. (2018). Doctor’s recommendations for psychosocial care: Frequency and predictors of recommendations and referrals. PloS One, 13, e0205160.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans, C. C., Sherer, M., Nick, T. G., Nakase-Richardson, R., & Yablon, S. A. (2005). Early impaired self-awareness, depression, and subjective well-being following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20, 488–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fann, J. R., Bombardier, C. H., Dikmen, S., Esselman, P., Warms, C. A., Pelzer, E., … Temkin, N. (2005). Validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in assessing depression following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20, 501–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Farrell-Carnahan, L., Barnett, S., Lamberty, G., Hammond, F. M., Kretzmer, T. S., Franke, L. M., … Nakase-Richardson, R. (2015). Insomnia symptoms and behavioural health symptoms in veterans 1 year after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 29, 1400–1408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferguson, R. J., & Mittenberg, W. (1996). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of postconcussion syndrome: A therapist’s manual. In V. B. Van Hasselt & M. Hersen (Eds.), Sourcebook of psychological treatment manuals for adult disorders (pp. 615–655). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fleming, J. M., Strong, J., & Ashton, R. (1998). Cluster analysis of self-awareness levels in adults with traumatic brain injury and relationshipto outcome. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 13, 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fuentes, M. M., Bjornson, K., Christensen, A., Harmon, R., & Apkon, S. D. (2016). Disparities in functional outcomes during inpatient rehabilitation between American Indian/Alaska native and white children. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 27, 1080–1096.  https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2016.0143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fuentes, M. M., Moore, M., Qiu, Q., Quistberg, A., Frank, M., & Vavilala, M. S. (2018). Differences in injury characteristics and outcomes for American Indian/Alaska native people hospitalized with traumatic injuries: An analysis of the national trauma data bank. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-018-0529-3.Google Scholar
  27. Fuentes, M. M., Thompson, L., Quistberg, D. A., Haaland, W. L., Rhodes, K., Kartin, D., … Rivara, F. P. (2017). Auditing access to outpatient rehabilitation services for children with traumatic brain injury and public insurance in Washington State. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 98, 1763–1770 e1767.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2016.12.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gauvin-Lepage, J., Friedman, D., Grilli, L., & Gagnon, I. (2018). Effect of sex on recovery from persistent postconcussion symptoms in children and adolescents participating in an active rehabilitation intervention. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation.  https://doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000402.Google Scholar
  29. Glintborg, C., & Hansen, T. G. (2016). Bio-psycho-social effects of a coordinated neurorehabilitation programme: A naturalistic mixed methods study. NeuroRehabilitation, 38, 99–113.  https://doi.org/10.3233/NRE-161301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gomez-Hernandez, R., Max, J. E., Kosier, T., Paradiso, S., & Robinson, R. G. (1997). Social impairment and depression after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78, 1321–1326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gunstad, J., & Suhr, J. A. (2001). “Expectation as etiology” versus “the good old days”: Postconcussion syndrome symptom reporting in athletes, headache sufferers, and depressed individuals. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7, 323–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gunstad, J., & Suhr, J. A. (2002). Perception of illness: Nonspecificity of postconcussion syndrome symptom expectation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hart, T., Brenner, L., Clark, A. N., Bogner, J. A., Novack, T. A., Chervoneva, I., … Arango-Lasprilla, J. C. (2011). Major and minor depression after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 1211–1219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2011.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hart, T., Hoffman, J. M., Pretz, C., Kennedy, R., Clark, A. N., & Brenner, L. A. (2012). A longitudinal study of major and minor depression following traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93, 1343–1349.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2012.03.036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoem Nordhaug, L., Vik, A., Hagen, K., Stovner, L. J., Pedersen, T., Gravdahl, G. B., & Linde, M. (2016). Headaches in patients with previous head injuries: A population-based historical cohort study (HUNT). Cephalalgia, 36, 1009–1019.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102415618948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoge, C. W., McGurk, D., Thomas, J. L., Cox, A. L., Engel, C. C., & Castro, C. A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 453–463.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa072972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Iverson, G. L. (2005). Outcome from mild traumatic brain injury. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18, 301–317.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.yco.0000165601.29047.ae.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Iverson, G. L. (2006). Complicated vs uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury: Acute neuropsychological outcome. Brain Injury, 20, 1335–1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Iverson, G. L., Zasler, N. D., & Lange, R. T. (2007). Post-concussive disorder. In N. D. Zasler, D. I. Katz & R. D. Zafonte (Eds.), Brain injury medicine: Principles and practice (pp. 373–405). New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  40. Janak, J. C., Cooper, D. B., Bowles, A. O., Alamgir, A. H., Cooper, S. P., Gabriel, K. P., … Orman, J. A. (2017). Completion of multidisciplinary treatment for persistent postconcussive symptoms is associated with reduced symptom burden. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 32, 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jorge, R. E., Robinson, R. G., Arndt, S. V., Forrester, A. W., Geisler, F., & Starkstein, S. E. (1993). Comparison between acute- and delayed-onset depression following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 5, 43–49.  https://doi.org/10.1176/jnp.5.1.43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jorge, R. E., & Starkstein, S. E. (2005). Pathophysiologic aspects of major depression following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20, 475–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16, 606–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lange, R. T., Brickell, T., French, L. M., Ivins, B., Bhagwat, A., Pancholi, S., & Iverson, G. L. (2013). Risk factors for postconcussion symptom reporting after traumatic brain injury in U.S. military service members. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30, 237–246.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2012.2685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lewis, F. D., & Horn, G. J. (2017). Depression following traumatic brain injury: Impact on post-hospital residential rehabilitation outcomes. NeuroRehabilitation, 40, 401–410.  https://doi.org/10.3233/NRE-161427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Liossi, C., & Wood, R. L. (2009). Gender as a moderator of cognitive and affective outcome after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 21, 43–51.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.21.1.43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Losoi, H., Silverberg, N. D., Waljas, M., Turunen, S., Rosti-Otajarvi, E., Helminen, M., … Iverson, G. L. (2016). Recovery from mild traumatic brain injury in previously healthy adults. Journal of Neurotrauma, 33, 766–776.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2015.4070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lucas, S., Hoffman, J. M., Bell, K. R., & Dikmen, S. (2014). A prospective study of prevalence and characterization of headache following mild traumatic brain injury. Cephalalgia, 34, 93–102.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102413499645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Malec, J. F., & Basford, J. S. (1996). Postacute brain injury rehabilitation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitaion, 77, 198–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Malec, J. F., Brown, A. W., Leibson, C. L., Flaada, J. T., Mandrekar, J. N., Diehl, N. N., & Perkins, P. K. (2007). The Mayo classification system for traumatic brain injury severity. Journal of Neurotrauma, 24, 1417–1424.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2006.0245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Malec, J. F., Brown, A. W., Moessner, A. M., Stump, T. E., & Monahan, P. (2010). A preliminary model for posttraumatic brain injury depression. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91, 1087–1097.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2010.04.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Malec, J. F., Smigielski, J. S., DePompolo, R. W., & Thompson, J. M. (1993). Outcome evaluation and prediction in a comprehensive-integrated post-acute outpatient brain injury rehabilitation programme. Brain Injury, 7, 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Malec, J. F., Testa, J. A., Rush, B. K., Brown, A. W., & Moessner, A. M. (2007). Self-assessment of impairment, impaired self-awareness, and depression after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22, 156–166.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.HTR.0000271116.12028.af.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Management of Concussion/mTBI Working Group. (2009). VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for management of concussion/mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 46, CP1–C68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McCrea, M. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury and postconcussion syndrome: The new evidence base for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. McCrea, M., Iverson, G. L., McAllister, T. W., Hammeke, T. A., Powell, M. R., Barr, W. B., & Kelly, J. P. (2009). An integrated review of recovery after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI): Implications for clinical management. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 23, 1368–1390.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13854040903074652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McCrory, P., Meeuwisse, W. H., Aubry, M., Cantu, R. C., Dvorak, J., Echemendia, R. J., … Turner, M. (2013). Consensus statement on concussion in sport: The 4th International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Zurich, November 2012. Journal of Athletic Training, 48, 554–575.  https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-48.4.05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Meagher, A. D., Beadles, C. A., Doorey, J., & Charles, A. G. (2015). Racial and ethnic disparities in discharge to rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery, 122, 595–601.  https://doi.org/10.3171/2014.10.JNS14187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mittenberg, W., Canyock, E. M., Condit, D., & Patton, C. (2001). Treatment of post-concussion syndrome following mild head injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23, 829–836.  https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.23.6.829.1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mittenberg, W., DiGiulio, D. V., Perrin, S., & Bass, A. E. (1992). Symptoms following mild head injury: Expectation as aetiology. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 55, 200–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mittenberg, W., Tremont, G., Zielinski, R. E., Fichera, S., & Rayls, K. R. (1996). Cognitive-behavioral prevention of postconcussion syndrome. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nampiaparampil, D. E. (2008). Prevalence of chronic pain after traumatic brain injury: A systematic review. JAMA, 300, 711–719.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.300.6.711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nieto Fernandez, E., & Barraca Mairal, J. (2017). Behavioral activation versus cognitive restructuring to reduce automatic negative thoughts in anxiety generating situations. Psicothema, 29, 172–177.  https://doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2016.325.Google Scholar
  64. Obermeyer, Z., Samra, J. K., & Mullainathan, S. (2017). Individual differences in normal body temperature: Longitudinal big data analysis of patient records. BMJ, 359, j5468.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j5468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ozen, L. J., & Fernandes, M. A. (2011). Effects of “diagnosis threat” on cognitive and affective functioning long after mild head injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 219–229.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S135561771000144X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Perrin, P. B., Krch, D., Sutter, M., Snipes, D. J., Arango-Lasprilla, J. C., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., … Lequerica, A. (2014). Racial/ethnic disparities in mental health over the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury: A model systems study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95, 2288–2295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2014.07.409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Preiss-Farzanegan, S. J., Chapman, B., Wong, T. M., Wu, J., & Bazarian, J. J. (2009). The relationship between gender and postconcussion symptoms after sport-related mild traumatic brain injury. PM R, 1, 245–253.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2009.01.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rapoport, M., McCauley, S., Levin, H., Song, J., & Feinstein, A. (2002). The role of injury severity in neurobehavioral outcome 3 months after traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 15, 123–132.Google Scholar
  69. Rapoport, M. J., McCullagh, S., Streiner, D., & Feinstein, A. (2003a). Age and major depression after mild traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11, 365–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rapoport, M. J., McCullagh, S., Streiner, D., & Feinstein, A. (2003b). The clinical significance of major depression following mild traumatic brain injury. Psychosomatics, 44, 31–37.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.psy.44.1.31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sacks, S. B. (2004). Rational emotive behavior therapy: Disputing irrational philosophies. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 42, 22–31.Google Scholar
  72. Scheenen, M. E., Spikman, J. M., de Koning, M. E., van der Horn, H. J., Roks, G., Hageman, G., & van der Naalt, J. (2017). Patients “At Risk” of suffering from persistent complaints after mild traumatic brain injury: The role of coping, mood disorders, and post-traumatic stress. Journal of Neurotrauma, 34, 31–37.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2015.4381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schrader, G. D. (1997). Does anhedonia correlate with depression severity in chronic depression? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 38, 260–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Seidler, Z. E., Rice, S. M., Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Oliffe, J. L., & Dhillon, H. M. (2018). Engaging men in psychological treatment: A scoping review. American Journal of Men’s Health, 12, 1882–1900.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988318792157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Silverberg, N. D., Berkner, P. D., Atkins, J. E., Zafonte, R., & Iverson, G. L. (2016). Relationship between short sleep duration and preseason concussion testing. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 26, 226–231.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Silverberg, N. D., Hallam, B. J., Rose, A., Underwood, H., Whitfield, K., Thornton, A. E., & Whittal, M. L. (2013). Cognitive-behavioral prevention of postconcussion syndrome in at-risk patients: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 28, 313–322.  https://doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0b013e3182915cb5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Silverberg, N. D., & Iverson, G. L. (2013). Is rest after concussion “the best medicine?”: Recommendations for activity resumption following concussion in athletes, civilians, and military service members. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 28, 250–259.  https://doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0b013e31825ad658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Singh, R., Mason, S., Lecky, F., & Dawson, J. (2018). Prevalence of depression after TBI in a prospective cohort: The SHEFBIT study. Brain Injury, 32, 84–90.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699052.2017.1376756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Snell, D. L., Surgenor, L. J., Hay-Smith, E. J., Williman, J., & Siegert, R. J. (2015). The contribution of psychological factors to recovery after mild traumatic brain injury: Is cluster analysis a useful approach? Brain Injury, 29, 291–299.  https://doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2014.976594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Solomon, S. (2009). Post-traumatic headache: Commentary: An overview. Headache, 49, 1112–1115.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4610.2009.01462.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Speicher, S. M., Walter, K. H., & Chard, K. M. (2014). Interdisciplinary residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury: Effects on symptom severity and occupational performance and satisfaction. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68, 412–421.  https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2014.011304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Suhr, J. A., & Gunstad, J. (2002a). “Diagnosis Threat”: The effect of negative expectations on cognitive performance in head injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 448–457.  https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.24.4.448.1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Suhr, J. A., & Gunstad, J. (2002b). Postconcussive symptom report: The relative influence of head injury and depression. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 981–993.  https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.24.8.981.8372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Taylor, B. C., Campbell, H., Nugent, E., Bidelspach, S., Kehle-Forbes, D. E., Scholten, S. M., Sayer, J., N. A (2017). Three year trends in veterans health administration utilization and costs after traumatic brain injury screening among veterans with mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 34, 2567–2574.  https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2016.4910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Trontel, H. G., Hall, S., Ashendorf, L., & O’Connor, M. K. (2013). Impact of diagnosis threat on academic self-efficacy in mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 35, 960–970.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2013.844770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. van Dongen, C. H., Goossens, P. H., van Zee, I. E., Verpoort, K. N., Vlieland, T. P. V., & van Velzen, J. M. (2018). Short-term and long-term outcomes of a vocational rehabilitation program for patients with acquired brain injury in the Netherlands. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 28, 523–530.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10926-017-9738-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vetter, P. H., Pritzbuer, J. V., Jungmann, K., Moises, H. W., Koller, O., & Kropp, P. (2000). Motivation to seek psychotherapy in patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Psychotherapy Research, 10, 159–168.  https://doi.org/10.1080/713663672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Waldron-Perrine, B., Hennrick, H., Spencer, R. J., Pangilinan, P. H., & Bieliauskas, L. A. (2014). Postconcussive symptom report in polytrauma: Influence of mild traumatic brain injury and psychiatric distress. Military Medicine, 179, 856–864.  https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-13-00282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wardlaw, C., Hicks, A. J., Sherer, M., & Ponsford, J. L. (2018). Psychological resilience is associated with participation outcomes following mild to severe traumatic brain injury. Frontiers in Neurology, 9, 563.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew R. Powell
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Allen W. Brown
    • 2
  • Danielle Klunk
    • 2
  • Jennifer R. Geske
    • 3
  • Kamini Krishnan
    • 1
    • 5
  • Cassie Green
    • 4
  • Thomas F. Bergquist
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and PsychologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Division of Biomedical Statistics and InformaticsMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  4. 4.Kirk Neurobehavioral HealthLouisvilleUSA
  5. 5.Cleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations