Non-invasive monitoring using photoplethysmography technology

  • Keisuke Tomita
  • Taka-aki NakadaEmail author
  • Taku Oshima
  • Takehiko Oami
  • Tuerxun Aizimu
  • Shigeto Oda
Original Research


We evaluated the accuracy and precision of a novel non-invasive monitoring device in comparison with conventional monitoring methods used in intensive care units (ICU). The study device was developed to measure blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation, continuously with a single sensor using the photoplethysmographic technique. Patients who were monitored with arterial pressure lines in the ICU were enrolled. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and arterial oxygen saturation were measured continuously for 30 min at 5-min intervals using the conventional methods and the study device. The primary outcome variable was blood pressure. Blood pressure measured by the study device highly correlated with the arterial pressure line values (correlation coefficients > 0.95). Percent errors for systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures were 2.4% and 6.7% and 6.5%, respectively. Percent errors for pulse rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were 3.4%, 5.6% and 1.4%, respectively. The non-invasive, continuous, multi-parameter monitoring device presented high level of agreement with the invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring, along with sufficient accuracy and precision in the measurements of pulse rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation.


Non-invasive Continuous monitoring Blood pressure Photoplethysmography Critically ill patients Single sensor 



We thank Mr. Shinji Kondo (K&S Co., Ltd) and Mr. Noriaki Sakakibara (K&S Co., Ltd) for developing the device, and Mr. Yutaka Furukawa, Mr. Minami Nagano, Ms. Eriko Miyazaki, Ms. Shino Tateishi and Ms. Yumiko Yamazaki for supporting data collection.

Author contributions

KT and TN: These authors contributed to the study conceptualization and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, statistical analysis, and drafting and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. TO and TO: These authors contributed to interpretation of data, drafting and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. SO: This author contributed to the study conceptualization and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This work was supported by AMED (#JPhe1502001) and JSPS KAKENHI (#JP24659232). The funder had no role in the study design, experiments, collection, analysis, interpretation of data, writing of the manuscript, or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keisuke Tomita
    • 1
  • Taka-aki Nakada
    • 1
    Email author
  • Taku Oshima
    • 1
  • Takehiko Oami
    • 1
  • Tuerxun Aizimu
    • 2
  • Shigeto Oda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Emergency and Critical Care MedicineChiba University Graduate School of MedicineChuoJapan
  2. 2.Center for Frontier Medical EngineeringChiba UniversityChuoJapan

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