Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 269–279 | Cite as

Measurement of blood-oxygen saturation using a photoacoustic technique in the rabbit hypoxemia model

  • Kiguna Sei
  • Masanori FujitaEmail author
  • Takeshi Hirasawa
  • Shinpei Okawa
  • Toshihiro Kushibiki
  • Hidenori Sasa
  • Kenichi Furuya
  • Miya Ishihara
Original Research


The golden standard method to obtain accurate blood oxygen saturation is blood gas analysis that needs invasive procedure of blood sampling. Photoacoustic technique enables us to measure real-time blood oxygen saturation without invasive procedure. The aim of this study is to use the photoacoustic technique, an optical method, for accurately determining oxygen saturation in vivo. We measured induced photoacoustic signals of arterial blood in the rabbit model of stable hypoxemia after irradiation at 750 and 800 nm. Oxygen saturation was calculated from the photoacoustic signals using two calibration curves. Calibration curve 1 is a conventional curve derived from the absorbance coefficient of hemoglobin, whereas calibration curve 2 is derived from the photoacoustic signals obtained from the original blood vessel model. Simultaneously, blood-gas analysis was performed to obtain the reference standard of oxygen saturation. Regression analysis and Bland–Altman analysis were performed to assess the accuracy of oxygen saturation obtained using the two methods. The oxygen saturation calculated using calibration curves 1 and 2 showed strong correlations with the reference standard in regression analysis (R = 0.965, 0.964, respectively). The Bland–Altman analysis revealed better agreement and precision with calibration curve 2, whereas there was significant underestimation of values obtained using calibration curve 1. Photoacoustic measurement of oxygen saturation using calibration curve 2 provided an accurate estimate of oxygen saturation, which was similar to that obtained using a portable blood-gas analyzer.


Photoacoustic technique Oxygen saturation Blood-gas analysis Non-contact evaluation Calibration 



We would like to express our gratitude to the support by National Defense Medical College Animal Experiment Facility and Mr. Yuta Ikeda for his dedicated assistance to collect data. This study was partly supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (KAKENHI, Grant Number 16K16413).


This study was supported by the fund of National Defense Medical College and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (KAKENHI, Grant Number 16K16413).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest to disclose.

Ethical approval

The experimental protocol used in this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board on Animal Care of National Defense Medical College, Japan (Approval number; 13091).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiguna Sei
    • 1
  • Masanori Fujita
    • 2
    Email author
  • Takeshi Hirasawa
    • 3
  • Shinpei Okawa
    • 3
  • Toshihiro Kushibiki
    • 3
  • Hidenori Sasa
    • 1
  • Kenichi Furuya
    • 1
  • Miya Ishihara
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyNational Defense Medical CollegeTokorozawaJapan
  2. 2.Division of Environmental MedicineNational Defense Medical College Research Institute, National Defense Medical CollegeTokorozawaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Medical EngineeringNational Defense Medical CollegeTokorozawaJapan

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