Use of the MIRUS™ system for general anaesthesia during surgery: a comparison of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane
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The MIRUS™ system enables automated end-expired control of volatile anaesthetics. The device is positioned between the Y-piece of the breathing system and the patient’s airway. The system has been tested in vitro and to provide sedation in the ICU with end-expired concentrations up to 0.5 MAC. We describe its performance in a clinical setting with concentrations up to 1.0 MAC. In 63 ASA II–III patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery, the MIRUS™ was set to keep the end-expired desflurane, sevoflurane, or isoflurane concentration at 1 MAC while ventilating the patient with the PB-840 ICU ventilator. After 1 h, the ventilation mode was switched from controlled to support mode. Time to 0.5 and 1 MAC, agent usage, and emergence times, work of breathing, and feasibility were assessed. In 60 out of 63 patients 1.0 MAC could be reached and remained constant during surgery. Gas consumption was as follows: desflurane (41.7 ± 7.9 ml h−1), sevoflurane (24.3 ± 4.8 ml h−1) and isoflurane (11.2 ± 3.3 ml h−1). Extubation was faster after desflurane use (min:sec): desflurane 5:27 ± 1:59; sevoflurane 6:19 ± 2:56; and isoflurane 9:31 ± 6:04. The support mode was well tolerated. The MIRUS™ system reliable delivers 1.0 MAC of the modern inhaled agents, both during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous (assisted) breathing. Agent usage is highest with desflurane (highest MAC) but results in the fastest emergence. Trial registry number: Clinical Trials Registry, ref.: NCT0234509.
KeywordsInhalation drug administration Isoflurane Sevoflurane Desflurane
MB: study design, experimental setup, statistical analysis, writing up the first draft of the manuscript, study coordinator and guarantor. DD: experimental setup, data collection. VV: study design, data collection. LP: writing up the first draft of the manuscript, review and editing. BJ: data collection. AM: study design, experimental setup, interpretation of data. HB: interpretation of data. HV: patient recruitment, review and editing of the manuscript. PG: patient recruitment, study design, experimental setup, data analysis. TPW: study design, review and editing of the manuscript. JH-N: study design, statistical analysis, writing up the first draft of the manuscript, review and editing. All authors have read and approved the final draft. All authors had full access to all the data and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
The MIRUS™ system was kindly provided by the manufacturer (Pall Medical, Dreieich, Germany).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Bellgardt und Herzog-Niescery received speakers honoraria from Pall Medical, Dreieich, Germany. The other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.