Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 85–94 | Cite as

Assessment of cerebral hemodynamic parameters using pulsatile versus non-pulsatile cerebral blood outflow models

  • Agnieszka UrygaEmail author
  • Magdalena Kasprowicz
  • Leanne Calviello
  • Rolf R. Diehl
  • Katarzyna Kaczmarska
  • Marek Czosnyka
Original Research



Prior methods evaluating the changes in cerebral arterial blood volume (∆CaBV) assumed that brain blood transport distal to big cerebral arteries can be approximated with a non-pulsatile flow (CFF) model. In this study, a modified ∆CaBV calculation that accounts for pulsatile blood flow forward (PFF) from large cerebral arteries to resistive arterioles was investigated. The aim was to assess cerebral hemodynamic indices estimated by both CFF and PFF models while changing arterial blood carbon dioxide concentration (EtCO2) in healthy volunteers.

Materials and methods

Continuous recordings of non-invasive arterial blood pressure (ABP), transcranial Doppler blood flow velocity (CBFVa), and EtCO2 were performed in 53 young volunteers at baseline and during both hypo- and hypercapnia. The time constant of the cerebral arterial bed (τ) and critical closing pressure (CrCP) were estimated using mathematical transformations of the pulse waveforms of ABP and CBFVa, and with both pulsatile and non-pulsatile models of ∆CaBV estimation. Results are presented as median values ± interquartile range.


Both CrCP and τ gave significantly lower values with the PFF model when compared with the CFF model (p ≪ 0.001 for both). In comparison to normocapnia, both CrCP and τ determined with the PFF model increased during hypocapnia [CrCPPFF (mm Hg): 5.52 ± 8.78 vs. 14.36 ± 14.47, p = 0.00006; τPFF (ms): 47.4 ± 53.9 vs. 72.8 ± 45.7, p = 0.002] and decreased during hypercapnia [CrCPPFF (mm Hg): 5.52 ± 8.78 vs. 2.36 ± 7.05, p = 0.0001; τPFF (ms): 47.4 ± 53.9 vs. 29.0 ± 31.3, p = 0.0003]. When the CFF model was applied, no changes were found for CrCP during hypercapnia or in τ during hypocapnia.


Our results suggest that the pulsatile flow forward model better reflects changes in CrCP and in τ induced by controlled alterations in EtCO2.


Transcranial Doppler ultrasound Cerebral arterial blood volume Cerebral arterial compliance Time constant of cerebral arterial bed Critical closing pressure Hypercapnia Hypocapnia 



We thank Krystian Gruszczyński, Msc. Eng. for assistance with data collection and Tomasz Szczepański, PhD for reviewing medical history and physical examination.


This research was supported by the National Science Center (Poland) under Grant No. UMO-2013/10/E/ST7/00117.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

ICM + Software is licensed by Cambridge Enterprise, Cambridge, UK, Prof. Czosnyka has a financial interest in a fraction of the licensing fee for ICM + software. The other authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Informed consent

The protocol complied with the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, and all participants gave written informed consent before participating in the study.

Research involving human and animal rights

The study was approved by the bioethical committee of the Wroclaw Medical University (Permission No. KB-170/2014).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Fundamental Problems of TechnologyWroclaw University of Science and TechnologyWroclawPoland
  2. 2.Brain Physics Laboratory, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Division of NeurosurgeryUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyAlfried-Krupp-KrankenhausEssenGermany
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryMossakowski Medical Research Centre Polish Academy of SciencesWarsawPoland
  5. 5.Institute of Electronic SystemsWarsaw University of TechnologyWarsawPoland

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