Application of Nanotechnology in Diagnosis and Disease Management of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Aquaculture

  • K. GovindarajuEmail author
  • Prerna Dilip Itroutwar
  • V. Veeramani
  • T. Ashok Kumar
  • S. Tamilselvan
Review Paper


Nanotechnology a multidisciplinary field involves the design and production of functional systems at the molecular level. In aquaculture, the application of nanotechnology it’s still at infant stage and it potent enough to solve many issues related to nutrition, animal production, reproduction, disease diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Worldwide, during the last decade though shrimp culture has been one of the most prevalent practices in marine industry and it has been threatened by viral diseases frequently. Among various shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is exceedingly pathogenic and conscientious for huge economic loss in shrimp culture industry. In this review, the application of nanotechnology in diagnosis and management of WSSV in aquaculture is discussed in detail.


Nanotechnology White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) Aquaculture Diagnosis Vaccine delivery 



We thank Ministry of Earth Sciences-Earth Science and Technology Cell (MoES-ESTC), Government of India, for financial assistance (MoES/11-MRDFIESTC-MEB(SU)/2/2014 PC-III), V.V thanks the DST-SERB (PDF/2016/003525) for a post doctoral research followship. We thank the management of Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology for its firm support to carry out research activities.


  1. 1.
    FAO. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (Rome, FAO, 2012).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. W. Flegel (2012). J. Invertebr. Pathol.110, 166.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. V. Lightner, R. M. Redman, C. R. Pantoja, K. F. Tang, B. L. Noble, P. Schofield, L. L. Mohney, L. M. Nunan, and S. A. Navarro (2012). J. Invertebr. Pathol.110, 174.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. M. Moss, D. R. Moss, S. M. Arce, D. V. Lightner, and J. M. Lotz (2012). J. Invertebr. Pathol.110, 247.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. W. Flegel (2006). Aquaculture258, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    T.W. Flegel, D.V. Lightner, C.F. Lo, L. Owens, in Shrimp Disease Control: Past, Present and Future, eds. by M.G. Bondad-Reantaso, C.V. Mohan, M. Crumlish, R.P. Subasinghe. Dis Asian Aquacul VI (2008), pp. 355.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Chaivisuthangkura, S. Longyant, and P. Sithigorngul (2014). World J. Virol.3, 1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Takahashi, T. Itama, M. Kondo, M. Maeda, R. Fujii, S. Tomonaga, K. Supamattaya, and S. Boonyaratpalin (1994). Fish Pathol.29, 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. S. Wang, K. F. J. Tang, G. H. Kou, and S. N. Chen (1997). J. Fish Dis.20, 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. C. Nadala, L. M. Tapay, S. Cao, and P. C. Loh (1997). J. Virol. Method.69, 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. C. B. Nadala and P. C. Loh (2000). J. Virol. Methods84, 175.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    SahulHameed, M. Anilkumar, M. L. StephenRaj, and K. Jayaraman (1998). Aquaculture160, 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y. Takahashi, T. Ltami, M. Maeda, N. Suzuki, J. Kasornchandra, K. Supamattaya, R. Khongpradit, S. Boonyaratpalin, M. Kondo, K. Kawai, R. Kusuda, I. Hirono, and T. Aoki (1996). J. Fish Dis.19, 399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim, P. Kim, S. Sohn, D. Sim, M. Park, M. Heo, T. H. Lee, J. Lee, H. Jun, and K. Jang (1998). J. Fish Dis.21, 11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    L. M. Nunan, B. T. Poulos, and D. V. Lightner (1998). Aquaculture160, 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. M. Tapay, E. C. Nadala, and P. C. Loh (1999). J. Virol. Methods82, 39.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. S. Chang, C. H. Chen, and Y. C. Wang (1998). Aquaculture164, 233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Sathish, S. Musthaq, A. S. Hameed, and R. B. Narayanan (2004). Aquaculture242, 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. J. Mieszawska, W. J. M. Mulder, Z. A. Fayad, and D. P. Cormode (2013). Mol. Pharm.10, 831.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    F. Airo Ambrosi and A. Merkoci (2010). Anal. Chem.82, 1151.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chirathaworn, T. Chantaramalai, A. Sereemaspun, N. Kongthong, and D. Suwancharoen (2011). Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect.34, 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. Duan, Y. Yu-Qi, and C. Hua (2008). Analyst133, 1250.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. Chia-Hsien, C. Y. Hung, T. Chain Chang, E. H. Ping Lin, and Y. Cheng Lin (2009). Microfluid. Nanofluid.6, 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Z. Peng, Z. Chen, J. Jiang, X. Zhang, G. Shen, and R. Yu (2007). Anal. Chim. Acta.583, 40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.S. Mishra, P. Swain, B.P. Mohanty, B.K. Das, in Nat. Seminar on Priorities in Fisheries and Aquaculture (2017), p. 248.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    F. H. C. Chua, J. J. Loo, and J. Y. Wee Dis Asian Aquacult (Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, 1995), p. 235.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lightner Handbook of Shrimp Pathology and Diagnostic Procedures for Diseases of Cultured Penaeid Shrimp (World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, 1996).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Rodriguez, B. Bayot, Y. Amano, F. Panchana, I. De Blas, V. Alday, and J. Caleron (2003). J. Fish Dis.26, 439.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Anonymous (1994). Asian Shrimp News20, 2.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. M. Shankar and C. V. Mohan (1998). J. Aqua. Trop.13, 43.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. P. Sangamaheswaran and M. J. P. Jeyaseelan (2001). ICLARM Quart.24, 16.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    K. Momoyama, M. Hiraoka, H. Nakano, H. Koube, K. Inouye, and N. O. Oseko (1994). Fish Pathol.29, 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Y. Takahashi, T. Itami, and M. Kondo (1995). Fish Pathol.30, 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. F. Lo and G. H. Kou (1998). Fish Pathol.33, 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    C. V. Doan, A. T. T. Pham, T. X. Ngo, P. H. Le, and H. V. Nguyen (2009). Israeli J. Aquacul. Bamidgeh.61, 248.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    P. J. Walker and C. V. Mohan (2009). Rev. Aquacul.1, 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rosenberry World Shrimp Farming 2000 (Shrimp News International, San Diego, 2001), pp. 13–324.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    K. Inouye, S. Miwa, N. Oseko, H. Nakano, T. Kimura, K. Momoyama, and M. Hiraoka (1994). Fish Pathol.29, 149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    D. V. Lightner, R. M. Redman, B. T. Poulos, L. M. Nunan, J. L. Mari, and K. W. Hasson (1997). Rev. Sci. Tech.16, 146.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. Hossain, A. Chakraborty, B. Joseph, S. Otta, I. Karunasagar, and I. Karunasagar (2001). Aquaculture198, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    S. Durand, K. F. J. Tang, and D. Lightner (2000). J. Aquatic. Animal Health.12, 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    C. F. Lo, C. H. Ho, C. H. Chen, K. F. Liu, Y. L. Chiu, P. Y. Yeh, S. E. Peng, H. C. Hsu, H. C. Liu, C. F. Chang, M. S. Su, C. H. Wang, and G. H. Kou (1997). Dis. Aquat. Organ.30, 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    P. Mohan, K. Shankar Sudha, and A. Hegde (1997). Curr. Sci.73, 109.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    G. Kou, C. Chen, C. Ho, C. Lo, in World Aquacul. Soc. (Baton Rouge, 1997), p. 262.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    K. A. Vanpatten, L. M. Nunan, and D. V. Lightner (2004). Aquaculture241, 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    C. F. Lo, C. H. Ho, S. E. Peng, C. H. Chen, H. C. Hsu, Y. L. Chiu, C. F. Chang, K. F. Liu, M. S. Su, C. H. Wang, and G. H. Kou (1996). Dis. Aquat. Organ.27, 215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    P. Kanchanaphum, C. Wongteerasupaya, N. Sitidilokratana, V. Boonsaeng, S. Panyim, A. Tassanakajon, B. Withyachumnarnkul, and T. W. Flegel (1998). Dis. Aquat. Organ34, 1.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    G. Kou, S. Peng, Y. Chiu, and C. Lo Tissue distribution of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp and crabs. in T. W. Flegel (ed.), Advances in Shrimp Biotechnology (National Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkok, 1998), p. 267.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    A. S. Sahul Hameed, K. Yoganandhan, S. Sathish, M. Rasheed, V. Murugan, and K. Jayaraman (2001). Aquaculture201, 179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. S. Sahul Hameed, G. Balasubramanian, S. Syed Musthaq, and K. Yoganandhan (2003). Dis. Aquatic. Organ.57, 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. S. Sahul Hameed, M. X. Charles, and M. Anilkumar (2000). Aquaculture183, 207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Z. Shi, C. Huang, J. Zhang, D. Chen, and J. Bonami (2000). J. Fish Diseases23, 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    R. B. PramodKiran, K. V. Rajendran, S. J. Jung, and M. J. Oh (2002). J. Fish Diseases25, 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    K. V. Rajendran, K. K. Vijayan, T. C. Santiago, and R. M. Krol (1999). J. Fish Diseases22, 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Y. C. Wang, C. F. Lo, P. S. Chang, and G. H. Kou (1998). Aquaculture164, 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    V. Corbel, Z. Zuprisal, Z. Shi, C. Huang, J. Arcier, and J. Bonami (2001). J. Fish Dis.24, 377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    P. Jiravanichpaisal, E. Bangyeekhun, and K. I. S. Soderhall (2001). Dis. Aquat. Organ.47, 151.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Edgerton (2004). Dis. Aquat. Organ59, 187.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    P. Jiravanichpaisal, K. Soderhall, and I. Siderhall (2004). Fish Shellfish Immunol.17, 265.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    K. Supamattaya, R. Hoffman, S. Boonyaratpalin, and P. Kanchanaphum (1998). Dis. Aquat. Organ.32, 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    S. Otta, G. Shubha, B. Joseph, A. Chakraborty, I. Karunasagar, and I. Karunasagar (1999). Dis. Aquat. Organ.38, 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    D. C. Yan, S. L. Dong, J. Huang, X. M. Yu, M. Y. Feng, and X. Y. Liu (2004). Dis. Aquat. Organ.59, 69.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ramırez-Douriet, R. De Silva-Davila, J. Mendez-Lozano, D. Escobedo-Urias, I. Leyva-Arana, and M. Lopez-Meyer, in White spot syndrome virus detection in zooplankton of coastal lagoons and shrimp commercial ponds in Sinaloa, Mexico. 135th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries S (ed. by The American Fisheries Society), poster (Anchorage, Alaska, 2005).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    T. Flegel (1997). World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.13, 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Q. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Chen, and F. Yang (2003). Dis. Aquat. Org.57, 261.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    W. K. Liu, Y. S. Chang, A. H. J. Wang, G. H. Kou, and C. F. Lo (2007). J. Virol.81, 1461.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    D. V. Lightner and R. M. Redman (1998). Aquaculture164, 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    T. Bell, D. Lightner, World Aqua. Soc. (Baton Rouge, LA USA, 1988), p. 114.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    S. E. Peng, C. F. Lo, C. H. Ho, C. F. Chang, and G. H. Kou (1998). Aquaculture164, 253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    P. C. Thakur, F. Corsin, J. F. Turnbull, K. M. Shakar, N. V. Hao, P. A. Padiyar, M. Madhusudhan, K. I. Morgan, and C. V. Mohan (2002). Dis. Aquat. Org.49, 235.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    S. V. Durad and D. V. Lighhtner (2002). J. Fish Dis.9, 381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    P. S. Chang, C. F. Lo, Y. C. Wang, and G. H. Kou (1996). Dis. Aquat. Organ.27, 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    W. B. Zhan, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, and H. Fukuda (2000). Chinese J. Oceanol. Limnol.18, 241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    P. Khawsak, W. Deesukon, P. Chaivisuthangkura, and W. Sukhumsirichart (2008). Mol. Cell Probes.22, 177.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    L. Ko, Y. Ko, S. Mao, and G. Tseng (2003). Febas. J.17, A1001.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    T. Anil, K. Shankar, and C. Mohan (2002). Dis. Aquat. Organ.51, 67.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    P. Chaivisuthangkura, L. Siwaporn, H. Warunee, S. Pattarin, R. Sombat, and S. Paisarn (2010). J. Virol. Methods.163, 433.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    W. Liu, Y. Wang, D. Tian, Z. Yin, and J. Kwang (2002). Dis. Aquat. Organ.49, 11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    R. Patil, K. Palaksha, T. Anil, P. Guruchannabasavanna, K. Patil, C. Mohan Shankarl, and A. Sripada (2008). Dis. Aquat. Organ.79, 157.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    W. Jaroenram, K. Wansika, and T. M. Flegel (2009). Mol. Cellular Probes23, 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    J. Robalino, C. Browdy, S. Prior, A. Metz, P. Parnell, P. Gross, and G. Warr (2004). J. Virol.78, 10442.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    M. Westenberg, B. Heinhuis, D. Zuidema, and J. M. Vlak (2005). Virus Res.114, 133.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    J. Xu, F. Han, and X. Zhang (2007). Antiviral Res.73, 126.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    B. H. Liu, Y. C. Lin, C. S. Ho, C. C. Yang, Y. T. Chang, J. F. Chang, C. Y. Li, C. S. Cheng, J. Y. Huang, Y. F. Lee, M. H. Hsu, F. C. Lin, H. C. Wang, C. F. Lo, S. Y. Yang, and H. C. Wang (2015). PLoS ONE10, e0138207.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    W. Sithigorngul, S. Rukpratanporn, N. Pecharaburanin, S. Rengpipat, S. Longyant, P. Chaivisuthangkura, and P. Sithigorngul (2006). Dis. Aquat. Organ.72, 101.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Y. Lei, H. Chen, H. Dai, Z. Zeng, Y. Lin, F. Zhou, and D. Pang (2008). Biosens. Bioelectron.23, 1200.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    C. Thiruppathiraja, S. Kumar, V. Murugan, P. Adaikkappan, K. Sankaran, and M. Alagar (2011). Aquaculture318, 262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Y. Seetang-Nun, W. Jaroenram, S. Sriurairatana, R. Suebsing, and W. Kiatpathomchai (2013). Mol. Cell Probes.27, 71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    P. K. Kulabhusan, J. M. Rajwade, V. Sugumar, G. Taju, A. S. Sahul Hameed, and K. M. Paknikar (2017). PLoS ONE12, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    N. Anusha, K. S. Shalini Devi, R. Sudhakaran, and S. K. Annamalai (2017). Sci. Rep.7, 46169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    K. Roy, H. Q. Mao, and K. W. Leong (1997). Proc. Controlled Release Soc.24, 673.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    J. Panyam, W. Z. Zhou, S. Prabha, S. K. Sahoo, and V. Labhasetwar (2002). FASEB J.16, 1217.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    M. Hedley, J. Curley, and R. Urban (1998). Nat. Med.4, 365.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    S. Rajeshkumar, C. Venkatesan, M. Sarathi, V. Sarathbabu, J. Thomas, K. Anver Basha, and A. S. Sahul Hameed (2009). Fish Shellfish Immunol.26, 429.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    L. J. Peek, C. R. Middaugh, and C. Berkland (2008). Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.60, 915.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    S. Vimal, S. AbdulMajeed, G. Taju, K. S. N. Nambi, N. SundarRaj, N. Madan, M. A. Farook, T. Rajkumar, D. Gopinath, and A. S. SahulHameed (2013). Acta. Tropica.128, 486.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    K. A. Ross (2014). JBMR102, 4161.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    M. G. Kim, J. Y. Park, Y. Shon, G. Kim, G. Shim, and Y. K. Oh (2014). Asian J. Pharm. Sci.9, 227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Y. Phanse, S. Puttamreddy, D. Loy, K. Ross, J. V. Ramirez, B. Narasimhan, and L. Bartholomay Driving Biomaterial Innovation and the Race to Translation (Society for Biomaterials, Charlotte, 2015), p. 15.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    A. R. Ochoa-Meza, A. R. Alvarez-Sanchez, C. R. Romo-Quinonez, A. Barraza, F. J. Magallon-Barajas, A. Chavez-Sanchez, J. C. Garcia-Ramos, Y. Toledano-Magana, N. Bogdanchikova, A. Pestryakov, and C. H. Mejia-Ruiz (2019). Fish & Shellfish Immunol.84, 1083–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    B. Sun, H. Quan, and F. Zhu (2016). Fish & Shellfish Immunol.54, 241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    K. Juarez-Moreno, C. H. Mejia-Ruiz, F. Diaz, H. Reyna-Verdugo, A. D. Re, E. F. Vazquez-Felix, E. Sanchez-Castrejon, J. D. Mota-Morales, A. Pestryakov, and N. Bogdanchikova (2017). Chemosphere169, 716.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Govindaraju
    • 1
    Email author
  • Prerna Dilip Itroutwar
    • 1
  • V. Veeramani
    • 1
  • T. Ashok Kumar
    • 2
  • S. Tamilselvan
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Ocean Research (DST-FIST Sponsored Centre)Sathyabama Institute of Science and TechnologyChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations