Effect of Nanoemulsification on the Antibacterial and Anti-biofilm Activities of Selected Spice Essential Oils and Their Major Constituents Against Salmonella enterica Typhimurium

  • Anand Prakash
  • Revathy Baskaran
  • Paramasivam Nithyanand
  • Vellingiri VadivelEmail author
Original Paper


In the present study, EOs of commonly used spices i.e. coriander, cumin, fennel, lemongrass and pepper and their major components (linalool, cuminaldehyde, anethole, citral and beta-caryophyllene) were nanoemulsified and investigated for their antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities against Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. The mean droplet size of the nanoemulsion ranged from 16.99 to 165.20 nm for EOs and 22.40 to 223.90 nm for their major compounds. Nanoemulsion of all EOs and their compounds (cuminaldehyde, anethol and citral) were stable for 30 days while phase separation was noticed in linalool and beta-caryophyllene after 5 and 10 days of storage, respectively. Among the investigated samples, citral nanoemulsion showed the highest antibacterial (MIC 0.156%) and anti-biofilm activity (79.9%) and was therefore selected for its application in fresh cut pineapple model. Treatment with citral nanoemulsion on the cut pineapple surface led to 2.57 log CFU/g reduction of the S. enterica Typhimurium population. Scanning electron microscopy revealed reduction of biofilms on the cut pineapple surface upon citral nanoemulsion treatment. Hence, we envisage that citral nanoemulsion can be further explored as natural antibacterial and anti-biofilm agent for food preservation applications.


Spice Essential oils Citral Nanoemulsion Antibacterial Salmonella 



Anand Prakash acknowledges Junior Research Fellowship (09/1095/0020/2017-EMR-I) provided by CSIR, New Delhi. Authors acknowledge management of SASTRA Deemed University for their encouragement in this research project.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10876_2019_1720_MOESM1_ESM.docx (448 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 448 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anand Prakash
    • 1
  • Revathy Baskaran
    • 2
  • Paramasivam Nithyanand
    • 3
  • Vellingiri Vadivel
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Chemical Biology Lab (ASK-II), School of Chemical and BiotechnologySASTRA Deemed UniversityThanjavurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Fruit and Vegetable TechnologyCSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI)MysoreIndia
  3. 3.Biofilm Biology Lab, School of Chemical and BiotechnologySASTRA Deemed UniversityThanjavurIndia

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