Evaluation of Larvicidal and Repellent Activity of Nanocrystal Emulsion Synthesized from F. glomerata and Neem Oil Against Mosquitoes
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Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles stephensi are the domestic vectors of tropical diseases include dengue, malaria, zika, filariasis. To control these vectors, ethnobotanical knowledge provides pragmatic solutions that are compatible with nature. Hence an attempt has been made to coalesce the ethnobotanical knowledge of tribes from Kadambur hills with the nano emulsification technology to formulate an herbal-based larvicidal and repellent nanocrystal emulsion. The ethanol extract from Ficus glomerata was used as the larvicidal and repellant agent against A. aegypti, C. quinquefasciatus and A. stephensi. For the improved stability, shelf life and sustained release of bioactive compounds, a novel methodology has been followed to synthesize nanocrystal emulsion. F. glomerata extract based nanocrystal emulsion (FON) was prepared by ultrasonication and characterized by Zeta potential (− 73.6 mV) and dynamic light scattering (104 nm), ATR-FTIR for the functional groups, high-resolution transmission electron microscope and selective area energy diffraction. The maximum shelf life was evaluated to be more than 3 years. The prepared nanocrystal emulsion was challenged for larvicidal and repellent activities against all the three species. The FON larvicidal results were comparable to the conventional neem oil based nanoemulsion and the repellant activity results were effective than the commercial formulation.
KeywordsNanocrystal Nanoemulsion Ficus glomerata Bioactive compound Repellant activity Larvicidal activity Mosquito
Selected area energy diffraction
Hydrophilic lipophilic balance
Phenol 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-
Neem oil based nanocrystal emulsions
Ficus glomerata extract based nanocrystal emulsions
The authors are grateful to the Department of Science and Technology—Science and Engineering Research Board (DST-SERB—File No. YSS/2014/000637) for funding our project. Authors are thankful to The South Indian Textile Research Association (SITRA), Coimbatore, India for their help in GC–MS instrumentation, Vector Control Research Centre (VCRC), Madurai, India for kindly providing us the mosquito larvae and Sophisticated Test & Instrumentation Centre (STIC), Cochin, India for the help in HR-TEM instrumentation.
All authors have contributed to the work and writing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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