Novel and Facile Synthesis of Sea Anemone Adhesive Protein-Coated ZnO Nanoparticles: Antioxidant, Antibiofilm, and Mosquito Larvicidal Activity Against Aedes aegypti
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Recently, marine bio-products have provided a new insight on biomaterials for pharmaceutical applications. Herein, the use of adhesive protein in the fabrication of bio-inspired nanomaterials noted to the possible realization of vital biomedical applications. This study illustrates the biosynthesize ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using adhesive protein from sea anemone Stichodactyla haddoni (ShAp). ShAp-ZnO NPs were characterized via SDS-PAGE, UV–Visible, XRD, FTIR, TEM and SAED. The molecular weight of the adhesive protein was determined by SDS-PAGE to be between 36 and 42 kDa. The UV–Vis peak of ShAp-ZnO NPs was revealed at 210 nm while XRD exhibited the crystalline nature of ShAp-ZnO NPs. FTIR revealed that functional group of ShAp-ZnO NPs, which exhibited peaks at 3441.31–1073.36 cm−1. HR-TEM revealed that ShAp-ZnO NPs obtained structure were hexagonal with 10 nm diameter. The antioxidant properties of ShAp, zinc acetate, and ShAp-ZnO NPs were noted at 100 µg/mL. Further, microscopic analysis demonstrated that 50 µg/mL of ShAp, zinc acetate, and ShAp-ZnO NPs efficiently repressed the biofilm formation of both Gram(+) and Gram(−) bacteria. In addition, maximal larvicidal effects were noticed at 100 µg/mL of ShAp-ZnO NPs against the 3rd instar of Aedes aegypti. Overall, the ShAp-ZnO NPs could have entomological and pharmaceutical applications.
KeywordsStichodactyla haddoni Adhesive protein Antibiofilm Antioxidant Insecticide
The authors appreciatively acknowledge the financial support of RUSA-Phase 2.0-F.24-51/2014-U (TN Multi-Gen), Dept. of Edn, Govt of India. MA gratitude the support of DST-INSPIRE fellowship-IF160623, New Delhi, India. The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through research group No. RG-1438-074. The authors thank the Deanship of Scientific Research and RSSU at King Saud University for their technical support.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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