Journal of Cluster Science

, Volume 29, Issue 6, pp 1217–1225 | Cite as

Evaluation of Toxicity of Chemically Synthesised Gold Nanoparticles Against Eudrilus eugeniae

  • Antony V. SamrotEmail author
  • Karanam Sai Bhavya
  • Chamarthy Sai Sahithya
  • N. Sowmya
Original Paper


Gold nanoparticles have attracted much interest in various fields very specifically in biomedical engineering. As gold nanoparticles have wide range of applications in different fields, there is a need to study about its toxicity against the biological systems. Hence, this study mainly focuses on the determination of toxicity of gold nanoparticles. In this research, gold nanoparticles were synthesized using various concentration of chloroauric acid by citrate reduction method. The produced particles were characterized using UV–Vis, SEM and AFM analysis. The particles were checked for its toxicity against earthworm—Eudrilus eugeniae and histology was done, where it was found to destroy the epidermis of gut and clitellum of the earthworm depicting the toxicity of gold nanoparticles.


Gold nanoparticles Toxicity Eudrilus eugeniae Histology ICP-OES 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. EL-Sayed (2006). J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 7238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. Zhou, Y. Kong, S. Kundu, J. D. Cirillo, and H. Liang (2012). J. Nanobiotechnol. 10, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. De, R. Bose, A. Kumar, and S. Mozumdar A Brief Overview of Nanotechnology, Targeted Delivery of Pesticides Using Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles, SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science (Springer, Belrin, 2014), pp. 35–36.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Oberdorster, Z. Sharp, V. Atudorei, A. Elder, R. Gelein, W. Kreyling, and C. Cox (2004). Inhal. Toxicol. 16(6–7), 437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. A. Taton (2002). Trends Biotechnol. 20, 277. Scholar
  6. 6.
    O. V. Salata (2004). J. Nanobiotechnol. 2, 3. Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Sonavane, K. Tomoda, and K. Makino (2008). Colloids Surf. B 66, 274. Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Benelli (2018). Acta Trop. 178, 73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Teimouri, F. Khosravi-Nejad, F. Attar, A. A. Saboury, I. Kostova, G. Benelli, and M. Falahati (2018). J. Clean. Prod. 184, 740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. S. Alharbi, K. Bhakyaraj, K. Gopinath, M. Govindarajan, S. Kumuraguru, S. Mohan, and G. Benelli (2017). J. Clust. Sci. 28, (1), 507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    I. Fratodd, I. Venditti, C. Cametti, and M. V. Russo (2015). Toxicol. Res. 4, 796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. A. Dykman and N. G. Khlebtsov (2011). Acta Nat. 3(2), 34.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. A. Hayat and S. Diego Colloidal Gold: Principles, Methods, and Applications (Academic Press, Cambridge, 1989). Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. Tong, Q. Wei, A. Wei, and J. X. Cheng (2009). Photochem. Photobiol. 85, 21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc (2004). Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. H. T. Luong, K. B. Male, and J. D. Glennon (2008). Biotechnol. Adv. 26(5), 492.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Karthika, P. Kaleeswarran, K. Gopinath, A. Arumugam, M. Govindarajan, N. S. Alharbi, J. M. Khaled, M. N. Al-anbr, and G. Benelli (2018). Mater. Sci. Eng. C 90(1), 589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. P. Borase, C. D. Patil, R. K. Suryawanshi, S. H. Koli, B. V. Mohite, G. Benelli, and S. V. Patil (2017). Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 40(10), 1437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Gopinath, S. Kumaraguru, K. Bhakyaraj, S. Mohan, K. S. Venkatesh, M. Esakkirajan, and G. Benelli (2016). Microb. Pathog. 101, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Suganya, B. Vaseeharan, S. Vijayakumar, B. Balan, M. Govindarajan, N. S. Alharbi, and G. Benelli (2017). J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 173, 404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Vijayakumar, B. Vaseeharan, B. Malaikozhundan, N. Gopi, P. Ekambaram, R. Pachaiappan, and M. Suriyanarayanamoorthy (2017). Microb. Pathog. 102, 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Das, B. Chetia, R. Prasanth, J. Madhavan, G. Singaravelu, G. Benelli, and K. Murugan (2017). J. Clust. Sci. 28(4), 2269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. Suganthy, V. S. Ramkumar, A. Pugazhendhi, G. Benelli, and G. Archunan (2017). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 25(11), 10418.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Murugan, G. Benelli, C. Panneerselvam, J. Subramaniam, T. Jeyalalitha, D. Dinesh, and P. Madhiyazhagan (2015). Exp. Parasitol. 153, 129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Subramaniam, K. Murugan, C. Panneerselvam, K. Kovendan, P. Madhiyazhagan, D. Dinesh, P. M. Kumar, B. Chandramohan, U. Suresh, R. Rajaganesh, M. A. Alsalh, S. Devanesan, M. Nicoletti, A. Canale, and F. Benelli (2016). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 23(8), 7543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    V. Sujitha, K. Murugan, D. Dinesh, A. Pandiyan, R. Aruliah, J. S. Hwang, K. Kalimuthu, C. Panneerselvam, A. Higuchi, A. T. Aziz, S. Kumar, A. A. Alarfaj, B. Vaseeharan, A. Canale, and G. Benelli (2017). Aquat. Toxicol. 188, 100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Z. Xiang, K. Wang, W. Zhang, S. W. Teh, A. Peli, P. L. Mok, A. Higuchi, and S. S. Kumar (2018). J. Clust. Sci. 29(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    P. L. Mok, S. N. Leow, A. E. Koh, H. H. Mohd Nizam, S. L. Ding, C. Luu, R. Ruhaslizan, H. S. Wong, W. H. Halim, M. H. Ng, R. B. Idrus, S. R. Chowdhury, C. M. Bastion, S. K. Subbiah, A. Higuchi, A. A. Alarfaj, and K. Y. Then (2017). Int. J. Mol. Sci. Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. J. Klaine, P. J. Alvarez, G. E. Batley, T. F. Fernandes, R. D. Handy, D. Y. Lyon, S. Mahendra, M. J. McLaughlin, and J. R. Lead (2008). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 27(9), 1825.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    B. Nowack and T. D. Bucheli (2007). Environ. Pollut. 150(1), 5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    P. S. Tourinho, C. A. Van Gestel, S. Lofts, C. Svendsen, A. M. Soares, and S. Loureiro (2012). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 31(8), 1679.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K. T. Kim, T. Zaikova, J. E. Hutchison, and R. L. Tanguay (2013). Toxicol. Sci. 133(2), 275.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. Truong, K. S. Saili, J. M. Miller, J. E. Hutchison, and R. L. Tanguay (2012). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol. 155(2), 269.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. M. Goodman, C. D. McCusker, T. Yilmaz, and V. M. Rotello (2003). Bioconjug. Chem. 15, 897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    V. L. Colvin (2003). Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1166. Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. Li, D. Li, G. Wan, J. Xu, and W. Hou (2011). Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 440.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. Sherman (2003). Raising earthworms successfully, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. EBAE, 103-83.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. V. Samrot, C. Justin, S. Padmanaban, and U. Burman (2017). Appl. Nanosci. 7(1), 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Button, M. J. Watts, M. R. Cave, C. F. Harrington, and G. T. Jenkin (2009). Environ. Geochem. Health 31, 273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    W. Haiss, N. T. K. Thanh, J. Aveyard, and D. G. Fernig (2007). Anal. Chem. 79, 4215.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. C. Martínez, N. A. Chequer, J. L. González, and T. Cordova (2012). Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2, 184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. Shamaila, N. Zafar, S. Riaz, R. Sharif, J. Nazir, and J. Naseem (2016). Nanomaterials 6, 71.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    S. Kumar, K. S. Gandhi, and R. Kumar (2007). Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 46(10), 3128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    B. Paul, B. Bhuyan, D. D. Purkayastha, and S. S. Dhar (2016). J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 154, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    S. Krishnamurthy, A. Esterle, N. C. Sharma, and S. V. Sahi (2014). Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 627.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. B. Rahim, W. Li, S. T. Hira, W. Di, A. K. Farhan, B. Dinesh, R. Zia-Ur, F. Farmanullah, and J. H. Li (2017). Front. Pharmacol. 8, 606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. M. Unrine, S. E. Hunyadi, O. V. Tsyusko, W. Rao, W. A. Shoults-Wilson, and P. M. Bertsch (2010). Environ. Sci. Technol. 44(21), 8308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    G. Benelli (2010). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 25(13), 12329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    H. McShane, M. Sarrazin, J. K. Whalen, W. H. Hendershot, and G. I. Sunahar (2012). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 31(1), 184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    W. A. Shoults-Wilson, B. C. Reinsch, O. V. Tsyusko, P. M. Bertsch, G. V. Lowry, and J. M. Unrine (2011). Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 75(2), 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Y. Zhang, T. P. ShareenaDasari, H. Deng, and H. Yu (2015). J. Environ. Sci. Health C Environ. Carcinog. Ecotoxicol. Rev. 33(3), 286.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    E. Lahive, C. Jurkschat, B. J. Shaw, R. D. Handy, D. J. Spurgeon, and C. Svendsen (2014). Environ. Chem. 11, 268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    A. M. Khalil (2016). J. Basic Appl. Zool. 74, 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    E. Lapied, E. Moudilou, J. M. Exbrayat, D. H. Oughton, and E. J. Joner (2010). Nanomedicine 5(6), 975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. J. C. V. Ploeg, R. D. Handy, P. L. Waalewijn-kool, J. H. Van Den Berg, Z. E. Rivera, J. Bovenschen, B. Molleman, J. M. Baveco, P. Tromp, R. J. Peters, G. F. Koopmans, I. M. Rietjens, and N. W. Van Den Brink (2014). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 33, 743.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    I. Alahdadi and F. Behboudi (2015). Int. J. Environ. Res. 9(1), 35.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antony V. Samrot
    • 1
    Email author
  • Karanam Sai Bhavya
    • 1
  • Chamarthy Sai Sahithya
    • 1
  • N. Sowmya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologySathyabama Institute of Science and TechnologyChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations