Synthesis of Saucer Shaped Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles by Co-precipitation Method and the Application as Fuel Additive
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Saucer shaped manganese oxide nanoparticles are synthesized through co-precipitation method using manganese chloride and manganese acetate as precursors. Synthesized manganese oxide nanoparticles are characterized via techniques like X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The composition, crystallinity and lattice parameters are analyzed from XRD data. The morphology and size of particles are analyzed by SEM and TEM analyses. The efficiency of fuel is evaluated in the presence of additive (manganese oxide nanoparticles). Various physical and combustion parameters are measured in the presence of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ppm dosage of additive. It is observed that the values of these parameters of fuel are significantly changed in the presence of additive.
KeywordsNanoparticles Saucer Manganese oxide Fuel additive Co-precipitation
The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF) and the University of Sargodha (UOS), Sargodha, Pakistan. This research work was initiated, designed and completed at UAF with collaboration of UOS. However, the final write up was accomplished at King Fahd University of petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Kingdom Saudi Arabia. This work was further refined and submitted from Pakistan by the corresponding author during his summer vacations from KFUPM.