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Juvenile Onset Splenomegaly and Oculopathy Due to Germline Mutation in ALPK1

Abstract

ROSAH syndrome was recently identified as an autosomal dominant systemic disorder due to mutations in ALPK1. It was characterized by retinal dystrophy, optic nerve edema, splenomegaly, anhidrosis, and migraine headache. We collected and summarized the clinical data of two patients with juvenile onset splenomegaly and oculopathy. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was adapted for genetic analysis. Mutations in ALPK1 were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Besides juvenile oculopathy and splenomegaly, both patients had intermittent fever and anhidrosis. Patient 2 also experienced recurrent upper respiratory infections in her infancy and developed dental and nail problems in childhood. Elevated TNF-α was their prominent laboratory features. Both patients were found to have a previously reported mutation, c.710C>T, p. T237M (NM_001102406) in ALPK1. Anti-TNF treatment of adalimumab was applied to patient 1, after which her optic disc edema in the left eye continued and the visual acuity deteriorated further. Patient 1 underwent elective splenectomy due to concern for spontaneous rupture of the spleen. Up to date, 18 patients of ROSAH syndrome have been reported. The clinical manifestations were relatively homogeneous, prominently presenting with juvenile onset oculopathy and splenomegaly. As it mainly involves ocular fundus, severe oculopathy deeply affects the quality of life and prognosis of ROSAH patients. Now little has been known about its treatment. As a newly recognized inherited systemic disorder, ROSAH syndrome needs to be paid more attention to, especially for those with juvenile onset splenomegaly and oculopathy.

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Correspondence to Hongmei Song.

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Zhong, L., Wang, J., Wang, W. et al. Juvenile Onset Splenomegaly and Oculopathy Due to Germline Mutation in ALPK1. J Clin Immunol (2020) doi:10.1007/s10875-020-00741-6

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Keywords

  • ALPK1
  • NF-κB pathway
  • splenomegaly
  • oculopathy
  • autoinflammatory diseases