Advertisement

Journal of Oceanography

, Volume 75, Issue 6, pp 485–501 | Cite as

Isoprene production in seawater of Funka Bay, Hokkaido, Japan

  • Atsushi OokiEmail author
  • Ryuta Shida
  • Masashi Otsu
  • Hiroji Onishi
  • Naoto Kobayashi
  • Takahiro Iida
  • Daiki Nomura
  • Kota Suzuki
  • Hideyoshi Yamaoka
  • Tetsuya Takatsu
Original Article

Abstract

We carried out shipboard observations in Funka Bay, Hokkaido, Japan, monthly or bimonthly from December 2015 to November 2016. We measured vertical profiles of isoprene, chlorophyll-a (chl-a), and other parameters from surface to bottom layer (about 95 m) near the center of the bay. We found substantial increases in isoprene concentration in the surface mixed layer from February to March during the peak of the spring diatom bloom, in the bottom layer from March to April after the peak of the bloom, and in the subsurface layer (below the surface mixed layer) in summer from July to August, where there were also substantial chl-a concentration maxima. We attribute the increased isoprene in the surface and subsurface layers to photosynthetic production of isoprene by the dominant phytoplankton in the spring bloom and in summer, and that in the bottom layer to dark production of isoprene by diatom aggregates that settled from the surface euphotic zone. We also measured isoprene production in laboratory incubation experiments. The rates of in situ production of isoprene per unit chl-a in the surface mixed layer during the spring bloom, in the dark bottom layer during the bloom, and in the subsurface layer in summer (0.82, 0.03–0.13, and 7.38 pmol (μg chl-a)−1 day−1, respectively) were consistent with our incubation results. We believe that this is the first report focused on dark production of isoprene by diatoms; the rate of isoprene production under dark conditions ranged from 4% to 16% of that by photosynthesis.

Keywords

Volatile organic compound (VOC) Phytoplankton Bloom Photosynthesis Dark production C5H8 Hydrocarbon 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments to improve the calculations of isoprene production rates and the ensuing discussion. We also thank the captain and crew of the T/S Ushio-maru of Hokkaido University, School of Fisheries Sciences, for their help in sampling, and Prof. Kuma for his help in our culture experiments. This study was supported in part by a grant for FY 2015–2016 Research Projects from the Hokusui Society Foundation, Sapporo, and by grants-in-aid for scientific research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (nos. 24681001, 16H02929).

References

  1. Agawin NSR, Daurte CM, Agusti S (2000) Nutrient and temperature control of the contribution of picoplankton to phytoplankton biomass and production. Limol Oceanogr 45(3):591–600.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2000.45.3.0591 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarez LA, Exton DA, Timmis KN, Suggett DJ, McGenity TJ (2009) Characterization of marine isoprene-degrading communities. Environ Microbiol 12:3280–3291.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02069.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold SR, Spracklen DV, Williams J, Yassaa N, Sciare J, Bonsang B, Gros V, Peeken I, Lewis AC, Alvain S, Moulin C (2009) Evaluation of the global oceanic isoprene source and its impacts on marine organic carbon aerosol. Atmos Chem Phys 9:1253–1262.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-1253-2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barlow RG, Alberte RS (1985) Photosynthetic characteristics of phycoerythrin-containing marine Synechococcus spp. Mar Biol 86(1):63–74.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00392580 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonsang B, Gros V, Peeken I, Yassaa N, Bluhm K, Zoellner E, Sarda-Esteve R, Williams J (2010) Isoprene emission from phytoplankton monocultures: the relationship with chlorophyll-a, cell volume and carbon content. Environ Chem 7(6):554–563.  https://doi.org/10.1071/EN09156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Booge D, Schlundt C, Bracher A, Endres S, Zancker B, Marandino CA (2018) Marine isoprene production and consumption in the mixed layer of the surface ocean—a field study over two oceanic regions. Biogeosciences 15(2):649–667.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-649-2018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Broadgate WJ, Liss PS, Penkett SA (1997) Seasonal emissions of isoprene and other reactive hydrocarbon gases from the ocean. Geophys Res Lett 44(21):2675–2678.  https://doi.org/10.1029/97GL02736 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broadgate WJ, Malin G, Kupper FC, Thompson A, Liss PS (2004) Isoprene and other non-methane hydrocarbons from seaweeds: a source of reactive hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. Mar Chem 88:61–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2004.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cleveland CC, Yavitt JB (1998) Microbial consumption of atmospheric isoprene in a temperate forest soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 64(1):172–177Google Scholar
  10. Dani KGS, Benavides AMS, Michelozzi M, Peluso G, Torzillo G, Loreto F (2017) Relationship between isoprene emission and photosynthesis in diatoms, and its implications for global marine isoprene estimates. Mar Chem 189:17–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2016.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duan H, Liu X, Yan M, Wu Y, Liu Z (2016) Characteristics of carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in residences in Beijing, China. Front Environ Sci Eng 10(1):73–84.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-014-0743-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Exton DA, Suggett DJ, McGenity TJ, Steinke M (2013) Chlorophyll-normalized isoprene production in laboratory cultures of marine microalgae and implications for global models. Limnol Oceanogr 58(4):1301–1311.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2013.58.4.1301 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gantt B, Meskhidze N, Kamykowski D (2009) A new physically-based quantification of marine isoprene and primary organic aerosol emissions. Atmos Chem Phys 9(14):4915–4927.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-4915-2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guenther AB, Jiang X, Heald CL, Sakulyanontvittaya T, Duhl T, Emmons LK, Wang X (2012) The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions. Geosci Model Dev 5(6):1471–1492.  https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-1471-2012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hioki N, Kuma K, Morita Y, Miura D, Ooki A, Tanaka S, Onishi H, Takatsu T, Kobayashi N, Kamei Y (2015) Regeneration dynamics of iron and nutrients from bay sediment into bottom water of Funka Bay, Japan. J Oceanogr 71:703–714.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-015-0312-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ieda T, Kitamori Y, Mochida M, Hirata R, Hirano T, Inukai K, Fujinuma Y, Kawamura K (2006) Diurnal variations and vertical gradients of biogenic volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds at the Tomakomai larch forest station in Japan. Tellus B 5(3):177–186.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00179.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Isada T, Hirawake T, Kobayashi T, Nosaka Y, Natsuike M, Imai I, Suzuki K, Saitoh S (2015) Hyperspectral optical discrimination of phytoplankton community structure in Funka Bay and its implications for ocean color remote sensing of diatoms. Remote Sens Environ 159:134–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2014.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Isada T, Hirawake Nakada S, Kobayashi T, Sasaki K, Tanaka Y, Watanabe S, Suzuki K, Saitoh S (2017) Influence of hydrography on the spatiotemporal variability of phytoplankton assemblages and primary productivity in Funka Bay and the Tsugaru Strait, Estur. Coast. Shelf Sci. 188:199–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2017.02.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kudo I, Yoshimura T, Lee CW, Yanada M, Maita Y (2007) Nutrient regeneration at bottom after a massive spring bloom in a subarctic coastal environment, Funka Bay, Japan. J Oceanogr 63:791–801.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-007-0067-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kurihara MK, Kimura M, Iwamoto Y, Narita Y, Ooki A, Eum Y-J, Tsuda A, Suzuki K, Tani Y, Yokouchi Y, Uematsu M, Hashimoto S (2010) Distributions of short-lived iodocarbons and biogenic trace gases in the open ocean and atmosphere in the western North Pacific. Mar Chem 118(3–4):156–170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2009.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kurihara M, Iseda M, Ioriya T, Horimoto N, Kanda J, Ishimaru T, Yamaguchi Y, Hashimoto S (2012) Brominated methane compounds and isoprene in surface seawater of Sagami Bay: concentrations, fluxes, and relationships with phytoplankton assemblages. Mar Chem 134:71–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2012.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lelieveld J, Butler TM, Crowley JN, Dillon TJ, Fischer H, Ganzeveld L, Harder H, Lawrence MG, Martinez M, Taraborrelli D, Williams J (2008) Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustained by a tropical forest. Nature 452:737–740.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06870 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lerdau M, Guenther A, Monson R (1997) Plant production and emission of volatile organic compounds. Bioscience 47(6):373–383.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1313152 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li JL, Zhai X, Zhang HH, Yang GP (2018) Temporal variations in the distribution and sea-to-air flux of marine isoprene in the East China Sea. Atmos Environ 187:131–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.05.054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Meskhidze N, Sabolis A, Reed R, Kamykowski D (2015) Quantifying environmental stress-induced emissions of algal isoprene and monoterpenes using laboratory measurements. Biogeosciences 12:637–651.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-637-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Milne PJ, Riemer DD, Zika RG, Brand LE (1995) Measurement of vertical distribution of isoprene in surface seawater, its chemical fate, and its emission from several phytoplankton monocultures. Mar Chem 48:237–244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4203(94)00059-M CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Miyake H, Shibata K, Higaki N (1998) Basin-side circulation flows in Funka Bay, Hokkaido. Umi to Sora 74(3):113–123 (in Japanese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  28. Moore RM, Wang L (2006) The influence of iron fertilization on the fluxes of methyl halides and isoprene from ocean to atmosphere in the SERIES experiment. Deep Sea Res II 53(20–22):2398–2409.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.05.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Odate T (1989) Seasonal changes in cell density of cyanobacteria and other picophytoplankton populations in Funka bay, Japan. Bull Plankton Soc Jpn 36(1):53–61Google Scholar
  30. Odate T, Yanada M, Mizuta H, Maita Y (1993) Phytoplankton carbon biomass estimated from the size-fractionated chlorophyll a concentration and cell density in the northern coastal waters from spring bloom to summer. Bull Plankton Soc Jpn 39(2):127–144Google Scholar
  31. Ohtani K, Kido K (1980) Oceanographic structure in Funka Bay. Bull Fac Fish Hokkaido Univ 31:84–114 (in Japanese with English abstract). http://hdl.handle.net/2115/23707
  32. Onishi H, Ooki A, Nomura D, Serizawa J, Amano K, Okada M (2017) Benthic resources and fisheries environments in Funka bay (1), Annual report of Hokusui Society Foundation in 2016, 77–88, (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  33. Ooki A, Yokouchi Y (2011a) Dichloromethane in the Indian Ocean: evidence for in situ production in seawater. Mar Chem 124:119–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2011.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ooki A, Yokouchi Y (2011b) Determination of Henry’s law constant of halocarbons in seawater and analysis of sea-to-air flux of iodoethane (C2H5I) in the Indian and Southern oceans based on partial pressure measurements. Geochem J 45:E1–E7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ooki A, Nomura D, Nishino S, Kikuchi T, Yokouchi Y (2015a) A global-scale map of isoprene and volatile organic iodine in surface seawater of the Arctic, Northwest Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans. J Geophys Res 120(6):4108–4128.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010519 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ooki A, Kawasaki S, Kuma K, Nishino S, Kikuchi T (2015b) Concentration maxima of volatile organic iodine compounds in the bottom layer water and the cold, dense water over the Chukchi Sea in the western Arctic Ocean: a possibility of production related to degradation of organic matter. Biogeosci Discuss 12:11245–11278.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-12-11245-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Palmer PI, Shaw SL (2005) Quantifying global marine isoprene fluxes using MODIS chlorophyll observations. Geophys Res Lett 32(9):L09805.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL022592 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Price NM, Harrison GI, Hering JG, Hudson RJ, Nirel PMV, Palenik B, Morel FMM (1989) Preparation and chemistry of the artificial algal culture medium. Aquil Biol Oceanogr 6(5–6):443–461.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01965581.1988.10749544 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sanadze GA (2004) Biogenic isoprene (a review). Russian J Plant Physiol. 51(6):729–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Seebah S, Fairfield C, Ullrich MS, Passow U (2014) Aggregation and sedimentation of Thalassiosira weissflogii (diatom) in a warmer and more acidified future ocean. PLoS ONE 9(11):e112379.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112379 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shaw SL, Chisholm SW, Prinn RG (2003) Isoprene production by Prochlorococcus, a marine cyanobacterium, and other phytoplankton. Mar Chem 80:227–245.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(02)00101-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shaw SL, Gantt B, Meskhidze N (2010) Production and emissions of marine isoprene and monoterpenes: a review. Adv Meteor.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/408696 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shimizu Y, Ooki A, Onishi H, Takatsu T, Tanaka S, Inagaki Y, Suzuki K, Kobayashi N, Kamei Y, Kuma K (2017) Seasonal variation of volatile organic iodine compounds in the water column of Funka Bay, Hokkaido, Japan. J Atmos Chem 74(2):205–225.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-016-9352-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shinada A, Shiga N, Ban S (1999) Structure and magnitude of diatom spring bloom in Funka Bay, southwestern Hokkaido, Japan, as influenced by the intrusion of Coastal Oyashio Water. Plankton Biol Ecol 46(1):24–29Google Scholar
  45. Stonner C, Edtbauer A, Williams J (2017) Real-world volatile organic compound emission rate from seated adults and children for use in indoor air studies. Indoor Air 28:164–172.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ina.12405 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang CM, Barratt B, Carslaw N, Doutsi A, Dunmore RE, Ward MW, Lewis AC (2017) Unexpectedly high concentrations of monoterpenes in a study of UK homes. Environ Sci Processes Impacts 19:528–537.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c6em00569a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wanninkhof R (1992) Relationship between wind-speed and gas-exchange over the ocean. J Geophys Res 97:7373–7382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Welschmeyer NA (1994) Fluorometric analysis of chlorophyll a in the presence of chlorophyll b and pheopigments. Limnol Oceanogr 39:1985–1992.  https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1994.39.8.1985 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yamaoka H, Takatsu T, Suzuki K, Kobayashi N, Ooki and Nakaya M (submitted) Annual and seasonal changes in the assemblage of planktonic copepods and appendicularians in Funka Bay before and after intrusion of Coastal Oyashio water assemblage of copepods and appendicularians. Fisheries ScienceGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Fisheries SciencesHokkaido UniversityHakodateJapan

Personalised recommendations