Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 271–285 | Cite as

Is Holding Two Jobs Too Much? An Examination of Dual Jobholders

  • Brian D. WebsterEmail author
  • Bryan D. Edwards
  • Mickey B. Smith
Original Paper


We extend research related to alternative forms of employment by examining the phenomenon of dual jobholding. Approximately 7.2 million Americans are classified as a dual jobholder. Although understudied, dual jobholding is a prevalent and important work arrangement. Drawing from partial inclusion theory, we examine the popular press sentiment that organizations should prevent employees from holding two jobs as these “moonlighters” are likely to be tired and devoid of energy. In study 1, we compared the level of work engagement dual jobholders exhibit at their primary job to the level of work engagement they exhibit at their second job. In a second study, across a sample of teachers and bartenders, we compared those who hold only one job (i.e., single jobholders) to those who hold two jobs (i.e., dual jobholders) on important work behaviors and attitudes. Results suggest dual jobholders do not hurt their organizations in the form of lower work engagement, OCB, and job performance. However, dual jobholders may be hurting themselves due to high levels of work-family conflict. In general, it appears that dual jobholders are able to perform as adequately as their single jobholding counterparts. However, dual jobholders may face obstacles that single jobholders do not, in the form of high levels of work-family conflict. Because previous research typically assumes that individuals hold only one job, and because dual jobholding is a prevalent employment arrangement, the present study sheds light on a novel and important topic for research and practice.


Dual jobholders Alternative work arrangements Careers Partial inclusion theory Work attitudes 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian D. Webster
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bryan D. Edwards
    • 2
  • Mickey B. Smith
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Management, Miller College of BusinessBall State UniversityMuncieUSA
  2. 2.Department of Management, Spears School of BusinessOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  3. 3.Department of Management, Mitchell College of BusinessUniversity of South AlabamaMobileUSA

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