Do accelerometer-based physical activity patterns differentially affect cardiorespiratory fitness? A growth mixture modeling approach

  • Sophie BaumannEmail author
  • Diana Guertler
  • Franziska Weymar
  • Martin Bahls
  • Marcus Dörr
  • Neeltje van den Berg
  • Ulrich John
  • Sabina Ulbricht


Findings on the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may be distorted if patterns of accumulated MVPA over a week exist but are ignored. Our aim was to identify MVPA patterns and to associate them to CRF. Two hundred twenty-four 40–75-year-old adults wore accelerometers for 7 days. CRF was measured by peak oxygen uptake (V′O2,peak) assessed on a cycle ergometer via standardized cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Growth mixture modeling indicated four MVPA patterns: “low/stable” (57%, Mean MVPA time (M) = 21 min day−1), “medium/stable” (20%, M = 46 min day−1), “medium/weekend high” (14%, M = 47 min day−1), and “high/weekend low” (9%, M = 71 min day−1). V′O2,peak was higher for persons with “high/weekend low” and “medium/weekend high” patterns compared to “low/stable” and “medium/stable” (p values < 0.001). The same total amount of MVPA may have greater benefit if performed on fewer days during the week but with a longer duration than if performed every day but with a lower duration.


Oxygen uptake Aerobic capacity Motion sensor Latent class Unobserved heterogeneity Adults 



This study was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research as part of the DZHK (Grant Number 81/Z540100152).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The local ethics committee approved the study (BB 002/15a).

Human and animal rights and Informed consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute and Policlinic for Occupational and Social Medicine, Faculty of MedicineTechnische Universität DresdenDresdenGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Social Medicine and PreventionUniversity Medicine GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  3. 3.German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK)GreifswaldGermany
  4. 4.Institute for Community Medicine, Section Epidemiology of Health Care and Community HealthUniversity Medicine GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  5. 5.Department of Internal Medicine BUniversity Medicine GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany

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