A scoping review of patterns, motives, and risk and protective factors for adolescent firearm carriage
- 310 Downloads
Firearm carriage is a key risk factor for interpersonal firearm violence, a leading cause of adolescent (age < 18) mortality. However, the epidemiology of adolescent firearm carriage has not been well characterized. This scoping review examined four databases (PubMed; Scopus; EMBASE; Criminal Justice Abstracts) to summarize research on patterns, motives, and underlying risk/protective factors for adolescent firearm carriage. Of 6156 unique titles, 53 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. These studies mostly examined urban Black youth, finding that adolescents typically carry firearms intermittently throughout adolescence and primarily for self-defense/protection. Seven future research priorities were identified, including: (1) examining adolescent carriage across age, gender, and racial/ethnic subgroups; (2) improving on methodological limitations of prior research, including disaggregating firearm from other weapon carriage and using more rigorous methodology (e.g., random/systematic sampling; broader population samples); (3) conducting longitudinal analyses that establish temporal causality for patterns, motives, and risk/protective factors; (4) capitalizing on m-health to develop more nuanced characterizations of underlying motives; (5) increasing the study of precursors for first-time carriage; (6) examining risk and protective factors beyond the individual-level; and, (7) enhancing the theoretical foundation for firearm carriage within future investigations.
KeywordsFirearm Adolescent Scoping review Carriage patterns Risk/protective factors Motives
The authors wish to acknowledge Lynn Massey, Laney Rupp, Jhuree Hong, and Carrie Musolf for assistance with the literature search, data abstraction, and manuscript preparation. The authors wish to acknowledge the University of Michigan Taubman Health Sciences Librarian Information Staff, including Judith Smith MS and Gupreet Rana MLIS, for their help with conducting the initial literature and database search.
This work was funded by NIH/NICHD (Grand No. 1R24HD087149-01A1) and by NIH/NIDA (Grand No. K23DA039341). The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the funding agencies. No honoraria, grants or other form of payment were received for producing this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Stephen N. Oliphant, Charles A. Mouch, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Stephen Hargarten, Jonathan Jay, David Hemenway, Marc Zimmerman, and Patrick M. Carter declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and Informed consent
This research doesn’t involve human subjects and/or animals. As this research doesn’t involve human subjects, no informed consent was obtained.
- Anderson, M., & Rainie, L. (2015). Pew Research Center. Technology Device Ownership, 2015, 29.Google Scholar
- Beardslee, J., Docherty, M., Mulvey, E., Schubert, C., & Pardini, D. (2018a). Childhood risk factors associated with adolescent gun carrying among Black and White males: Examination of self-protection, social influence, and antisocial propensity explanations. Law and Human Behavior, 42, 110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beardslee, J., Mulvey, E., Schubert, C., Allison, P., Infante, A., & Pardini, D. (2018b). Gun-and non-gun–related violence exposure and risk for subsequent gun carrying among male juvenile offenders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 57, 274–279.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Buu, A., Massey, L., Walton, M. A., Cranford, J., Zimmerman, M. A., & Cunningham, R. M. (2017). Assessment methods and schedules for collecting daily process data on substance use related health behaviors: A randomized control study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 178, 159–164.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- CDC, C. f. D. C. (2017). Web-based injury statistics query and reporting system (WISQARS). US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from www.cdc.gav/ncipc/wisqars
- Carter, P. M., Cranford, J. A., Buu, A., Walton, M. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Goldstick, J. E.,… Cunningham, R. M. (2018). Daily patterns of substance use and violence among a high-risk sample: Results from the flint youth injury study. Under Review at Addiction.Google Scholar
- Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., Newton, M. F., Clery, M., Whiteside, L. K., Zimmerman, M. A., et al. (2013). Firearm possession among adolescents presenting to an urban Emergency Department for assault. Pediatrics, 132, 213–221. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-0163 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Cunningham, R. M., Carter, P. M., Ranney, M., Zimmerman, M. A., Blow, F. C., Booth, B. M., et al. (2015). Violent reinjury and mortality among youth seeking emergency department care for assault-related injury. JAMA Pediatrics, 169, 63. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.1900 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Cunningham, R. M., Resko, S. M., Harrison, S. R., Zimmerman, M., Stanley, R., Chermack, S. T., et al. (2010). Screening adolescents in the emergency department for weapon carriage. Academic Emergency Medicine, 17, 168–176. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00639.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Durant, R. H., Getts, A. G., Cadenhead, C., & Woods, E. R. (1995). The association between weapon carrying and the use of violence among adolescents living in and around public housing. Journal of Adolescent Health, 17, 376–380.Google Scholar
- Goldstick, J. E., Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Sumner, S. A., Zimmerman, M. A., et al. (2017). Development of the SaFETy Score: A clinical screening tool for predicting future firearm violence risk development of the SaFETy score. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166, 707–714.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Grimshaw, J. (2010). A guide to knowledge synthesis: A knowledge synthesis chapter. Canadian Institutes of Health Research, 182, e839–e842.Google Scholar
- HealthyPeople. (2018). 2020 Topics and objectives: Injury and violence prevention. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/injury-and-violence-prevention
- Higgins, J. (2011). Green S. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions Version 5.1. 0. The Cochrane Collaboration. Confidence intervals.Google Scholar
- Institute, J. B. (2015). Methodology for JBI scoping reviews. Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers’ Manual: 2015 Edition/Supplement. South Australia, Australia: The Joanna Briggs Institute.Google Scholar
- Kretman, S. E., Zimmerman, M. A., Morrel-Samuels, S., & Hudson, D. (2009). Adolescent violence: Risk, resilience, and prevention. Adolescent Health: Understanding and Preventing Risk Behaviors, 2019, 213–232.Google Scholar
- Leshner, A. I., Altevogt, B. M., Lee, A. F., McCoy, M. A., & Kelley, P. W. (2013). Priorities for research to reduce the threat of firearm-related violence. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Lizotte, A. J., Howard, G. J., Krohn, M. D., & Thronberry, T. P. (1997). Patterns of illegal gun carrying among young urban males. Valparaiso University Law Review, 31, 375.Google Scholar
- Mateu-Gelabert, P. (2002). Dreams, gangs, and guns: the interplay between adolescent violence and immigration in a New York City neighborhood. Retrieved from.Google Scholar
- McDowall, D., Loftin, C., & Wiersema, B. (1992). The incidence of civilian defensive firearm use. Manuscript. College Park: Univ. Maryland, Inst. Criminal Justice.Google Scholar
- Molnar, B. E., Miller, M. J., Azrael, D., & Buka, S. L. (2004). Neighborhood predictors of concealed firearm carrying among children and adolescents: Results from the project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 158, 657–664.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reid, J. A., Richards, T. N., Loughran, T. A., & Mulvey, E. P. (2017). The relationships among exposure to violence, psychological distress, and gun carrying among male adolescents found guilty of serious legal offenses: A longitudinal cohort study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166, 412–418.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Turner, M. G., Phillips, M. D., Tigri, H. B., Williams, M. A., & Hartman, J. L. (2016). On the association between repeat bully victimizations and carrying a firearm: Evidence in a national sample. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60, 871–896.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Walton, M., Epstein-Ngo, Q., Carter, P., Zimmerman, M., Blow, F., Buu, A., et al. (2017). Marijuana use trajectories among drug-using youth presenting to an urban emergency department: Violence and social influences. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 173, 117–125.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Wells, G., Shea, B., O’connell, D., Peterson, J., Welch, V., Losos, M., & Tugwell, P. (2000). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses Google Scholar. Retrieved from http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.htm