State of the science: a scoping review of primary prevention of firearm injuries among children and adolescents
- 312 Downloads
Intentional and unintentional firearm injury is the second leading cause of death for youth, underscoring the need for effective primary prevention approaches that focus on increasing safe storage by caregivers and decreasing handling/carriage among youth. This article describes the state of the science for prevention of firearm injuries among children and adolescents. We applied PRISMA guidelines to present results from a scoping review using PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and CJ Abstracts for original research articles published between January 1, 1985 and March 1, 2018 in the U.S. focusing on primary screening or interventions for primary prevention of pediatric firearm injuries. In total, 46 articles met inclusion criteria: safe storage (23), screening (2), firearm handling/carriage/use (21). Across school, healthcare, and community settings, few evidenced-based programs exist, and data on firearm safety technologies are lacking. Programs have generally not employed rigorous designs, and/or assessed behavioral (e.g., carriage) or injury-related firearm outcomes. Evidenced-based prevention programs are needed to mitigate firearm morbidity and mortality among youth.
KeywordsUniversal prevention Primary prevention Firearm injury Safe storage Firearm carriage Children Adolescents
We would like to thank Gurpreet Kaur Rana, Informationist at the Taubman Health Sciences Library, University of Michigan, for creating the search strategies. We would also like to thank Jhuree Hong and Jaemin Park, and Stephanie Kostolansky for assisting with title abstract screening, organizing and summarizing articles for review.
This review was funded by NIH/NICHD 1R24HD087149-01A1. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the funding agencies. Supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of the National Institutes of Health K23 AA022641.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Quyen M. Ngo, Eric Sigel, Allante Moon, Sara F. Stein, Lynn S. Massey, Frederick Rivara, Cheryl King, Mark Ilgen, Rebecca Cunningham, and Maureen A. Walton declares that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and Informed consent
All procedures followed were in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
- American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016). Survey: Gun violence prevention a big issue for most pediatricians. Retrieved from http://www.aappublications.org/news/2016/08/10/GunViolence081016. Accessed 9 Nov 2018.
- Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development. (2018). Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development. Retrieved from https://www.blueprintsprograms.org/. Accessed 9 Nov 2018.
- Caldwell, C. H., Rafferty, J., Reischl, T. M., De Loney, E. H., & Brooks, C. L. (2010). Enhancing parenting skills among nonresident African American fathers as a strategy for preventing youth risky behaviors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 17–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-009-9290-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Callahan, C. M., Rivara, F. P., & Koepsell, T. D. (1994). Money for guns: Evaluation of the Seattle gun buy-back program. Public Health Reports, 109, 472.Google Scholar
- Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., Zimmerman, M. A., Chermack, S. T., Roche, J. S., & Cunningham, R. M. (2016). Efficacy of a universal brief intervention for violence among urban emergency department youth. Academic Emergency Medicine, 23, 1061–1070. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). The social-ecological model: A framework for prevention. Atlanta, GA: CDC. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/overview/social-ecologicalmodel.html. Accessed 2 Nov 2018.
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth violence. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/index.html. Accessed 2 Nov 2018.
- Cunningham, R. M., Chermack, S. T., Zimmerman, M. A., Shope, J. T., Bingham, C. R., Blow, F. C., et al. (2012). Brief motivational interviewing intervention for peer violence and alcohol use in teens: One-year follow-up. Pediatrics, 129, 1083–1090. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-3419 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fowler, K. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Haileyesus, T., Gutierrez, C., & Bacon, S. (2017). Childhood firearm injuries in the United States. Pediatrics, e20163486.Google Scholar
- Goldstick, J. E., Carter, P. M., Walton, M. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Sumner, S. A., Zimmerman, M. A., et al. (2017). Development of the SaFETy score: A clinical screening tool for predicting future firearm violence risk. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166, 707–714. https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-1927 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heinze, J. E., Reischl, T. M., Bai, M., Roche, J. S., Morrel-Samuels, S., Cunningham, R. M., et al. (2016). A comprehensive prevention approach to reducing assault offenses and assault injuries among youth. Prevention Science: The Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research, 17, 167–176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-015-0616-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Howell, E. M., & Abraham, P. (2013). The hospital costs of firearm assaults. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
- J Celeste Kallenborn MBA, R., Kathie Gonzales BSN, R., Crane, N. B., Karen Pesce BSN, R., Sherry Swan BSN, R., & Flint, L. (2004). Cease Fire Tampa Bay: A three-tiered approach to firearm injury prevention. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 11, 6.Google Scholar
- Loh, K., Walton, M. A., Harrison, S. R., Zimmerman, M., Stanley, R., Chermack, S. T., et al. (2010). Prevalence and correlates of handgun access among adolescents seeking care in an urban emergency department. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, 347–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.11.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Parikh, K., Silver, A., Patel, S. J., Iqbal, S. F., & Goyal, M. (2017). Pediatric firearm-related injuries in the United States. Hospital Pediatrics, hpeds. 2016-0146.Google Scholar
- Reischl, T. M., Zimmerman, M. A., Morrel-Samuels, S., Franzen, S. P., Faulk, M., Eisman, A. B., et al. (2011). Youth empowerment solutions for violence prevention. Adolescent Medicine-State of the Art Reviews, 22, 581.Google Scholar
- Rowhani-Rahbar, A., Simonetti, J. A., & Rivara, F. P. (2016). Effectiveness of interventions to promote safe firearm storage. Epidemiologic Reviews, 38, 111–124.Google Scholar
- Scott, J., Azrael, D., & Miller, M. (2018). Firearm storage in homes with children with self-harm risk factors. Pediatrics, e20172600.Google Scholar
- Skogan, W., Hartnett, S., Bump, N., & Dubois, J. (2009). Evaluation of CeaseFire-Chicago. Northwestern University Illinois. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/227181.pdf. Accessed 2 Nov 2018.
- Urie, B. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.Google Scholar
- Walton, M. A., Chermack, S. T., Shope, J. T., Bingham, C. R., Zimmerman, M. A., Blow, F. C., et al. (2010). Effects of a brief intervention for reducing violence and alcohol misuse among adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 304, 527–535. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wolk, C. B., Jager-Hyman, S., Marcus, S. C., Ahmedani, B. K., Zeber, J. E., Fein, J. A., et al. (2017). Developing implementation strategies for firearm safety promotion in paediatric primary care for suicide prevention in two large US health systems: A study protocol for a mixed-methods implementation study. British Medical Journal Open, 7, e014407.Google Scholar
- Wolk, C. B., Van Pelt, A. E., Jager-Hyman, S., Ahmedani, B. K., Zeber, J. E., Fein, J. A., et al. (2018). Stakeholder perspectives on implementing a firearm safety intervention in pediatric primary care as a universal suicide prevention strategy: A qualitative study. JAMA Network Open, 1, e185309–e185309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zatzick, D., Russo, J., Lord, S. P., Varley, C., Wang, J., Berliner, L., et al. (2014). Collaborative care intervention targeting violence risk behaviors, substance use, and posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms in injured adolescents: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 168, 532–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar