Factors affecting linkage to HIV care and ART initiation following referral for ART by a mobile health clinic in South Africa: evidence from a multimethod study
- 95 Downloads
Linkage to care from mobile clinics is often poor and inadequately understood. This multimethod study assessed linkage to care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake following ART-referral by a mobile clinic in Cape Town (2015/2016). Clinic record data (N = 86) indicated that 67% linked to care (i.e., attended a clinic) and 42% initiated ART within 3 months. Linkage to care was positively associated with HIV-status disclosure intentions (aOR: 2.99, 95% CI 1.13–7.91), and treatment readiness (aOR: 2.97, 95% CI 1.05–8.34); and negatively with good health (aOR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.13–0.99), weekly alcohol consumption (aOR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.12–0.98), and internalised stigma (aOR: 0.32, 95% CI 0.11–0.91). Following linkage, perceived stigma negatively affected ART-initiation. In-depth interviews (N = 41) elucidated fears about ART side-effects, HIV-status denial, and food insecurity as barriers to ART initiation; while awareness of positive ART-effects, follow-up telephone counselling, familial responsibilities, and maintaining health to avoid involuntary disclosure were motivating factors. Results indicate that an array of interventions are required to encourage rapid ART-initiation following mobile clinic HIV-testing services.
KeywordsLinkage to care HIV/AIDS Barriers to ART initiation Community-based HIV testing services Mobile clinic HIV care continuum Qualitative HIV treatment cascade
The authors gratefully acknowledge the staff of the Tutu Tester Mobile Clinic for their valuable assistance with developing the study materials and with data collection. We are also grateful for data access from the Western Cape Government Department of Health and assistance in linking study participants to electronic clinic records from Andrew Boulle, Jonathan Euvrard and Meg Osler (Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research) and Nicki Tiffin (Provincial Health Data Centre, Western Cape Government).
This study was partially funded by the National Research Foundation, South Africa, through the Research Career Advancement Fellowship. Data collection for this study was partially funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health (Award No. R24HD077976, SASH). Support was provided by the National Institutes of Health through the Brown University Population Studies and Training Center (PSTC) (P2CHD041020-16). CK and ML derived support for analysis, interpretation and writing from the National Institute of Mental Health (Grants K01MH 096646; and R01 MH106600, i-ALARM). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health, the National Research Foundation, or anyone else. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, manuscript preparation, or decision to publish.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Brendan Maughan-Brown, Abigail Harrison, Omar Galárraga, Caroline Kuo, Philip Smith, Linda-Gail Bekker and Mark N. Lurie declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and Informed consent
The Human Research Ethics Committee, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town provided study approval (Ref: 849/2014). The Western Cape Government Department of Health approved access to provincial health data (Ref: WC_2015RP1_270). Written informed consent was obtained from all study participants.
- Ashforth, A. (2005). Witchcraft, violence, and democracy in South Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Fox, M. P., Mazimba, A., Seidenberg, P., Crooks, D., Sikateyo, B., & Rosen, S. (2010). Barriers to initiation of antiretroviral treatment in rural and urban areas of Zambia: A cross-sectional study of cost, stigma, and perceptions about ART. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 13, 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kubler-Ross, E. (1997). On death and dying. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
- Maughan-Brown, B., Kuo, C., Galárraga, O., Smith, P., Lurie, M. N., Bekker, L.-G., et al. (2018a). Stumbling blocks at the clinic: Experiences of seeking HIV treatment and care in South Africa. AIDS and Behavior, 22, 765–773. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-1877-4 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Maughan-Brown, B., Smith, P., Kuo, C., Harrison, A., Lurie, M., Bekker, L.-G., et al. (2018b). A conditional economic incentive fails to improve linkage to care and antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive adults in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 32, 70–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Motsoaledi, A. (2016). Health department budget vote speech 2016/2017 (pp. 1–10). South Africa: Department of Health. Retrieved January 8, 2018 from http://www.gov.za/speeches/debate-health-budget-vote-national-assembly-10-may-2016-dr-aaron-motsoaledi-minister-health.
- Nash, D., Tymejczyk, O., Gadisa, T., Kulkarni, S. G., Hoffman, S., Yigzaw, M., et al. (2016). Factors associated with initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the advanced stages of HIV infection in six Ethiopian HIV clinics, 2012 to 2013. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 19, 20637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- National Strategic Plan Steering Committee. (2017). DRAFT 1.0 South African National Strategic Plan on HIV, TB and STIs 2017–2022 (pp. 1–93). South African National AIDS Council. Retrieved January 8, 2018 from http://nsp.sanac.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/RSA-NSP-2017-2022.-30-Jan.-Steering-Committee-review.pdf.
- Patten, G. E., Wilkinson, L., Conradie, K., Isaakidis, P., Harries, A. D., Edginton, M. E., et al. (2013). Impact on ART initiation of point-of-care CD4 testing at HIV diagnosis among HIV-positive youth in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 16, 18518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ruzagira, E., Baisley, K., Kamali, A., Biraro, S., Grosskurth, H., & the Working Group on Linkage to HIV Care. (2017). Linkage to HIV care after home-based HIV counselling and testing in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 22, 807–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shisana, O., Rehle, T., Simbayi, L., Zuma, K., Jooste, S., Zunga, N., et al. (2014). South African National HIV prevalence, incidence and behaviour survey, 2012 (pp. 1–195). Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council Press.Google Scholar
- Simbayi, L., Zuma, K., Cloete, A., Jooste, S., Zimela, S., Blose, S., et al. (2015). The people living with HIV stigma index: South Africa 2014. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council Press.Google Scholar
- UNAIDS. (2016). Global AIDS update 2016. Geneva: UNAIDS. Retrieved January 8, 2018 from http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/global-AIDS-update-2016_en.pdf.
- UNAIDS. (2017). UNAIDS DATA 2017. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.Google Scholar
- Van Rooyen, H., Barnabas, R. V., Baeten, J. M., Phakathi, Z., Joseph, P., Krows, M., et al. (2013). High HIV testing uptake and linkage to care in a novel program of home-based HIV counseling and testing with facilitated referral in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 64, E1–E8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar