Advertisement

A Preliminary Analysis of Equivalence-Based Instruction to Train Instructors to Implement Discrete Trial Teaching

  • Tom CariveauEmail author
  • Astrid La Cruz Montilla
  • Sydney Ball
  • Elizabeth Gonzalez
Original Paper
  • 119 Downloads

Abstract

Methods to efficiently train instructors to implement evidence-based procedures with children diagnosed with developmental disabilities have been a prominent interest in educational and clinical settings. Behavioral skills training (BST) is frequently recommended and includes four components beginning with instruction. In most studies, the instruction component consists of giving the trainee the protocol for the procedure later to be trained. Recently, researchers have included more robust instructional components, which have produced acquisition without requiring the additional components of BST. The current study evaluated the use of equivalence-based instruction with embedded modeling to teach four instructors to implement discrete trial teaching. All instructors emitted class-consistent responding to untrained relations following equivalence-based instruction, and two participants demonstrated high levels of fidelity on discrete trial teaching probes. The remaining participants required a brief, three-trial model of DTT before mastery was observed on these probes. Our findings suggest that including a more robust instruction during BST may increase the efficiency of training instructors to conduct discrete trial teaching.

Keywords

Behavioral skills training Equivalence-based instruction Discrete trial teaching Stimulus equivalence 

Notes

Funding

This study was not funded.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authos declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Albright, L., Reeve, K. F., Reeve, S. A., & Kisamore, A. N. (2015). Teaching statistical variability with equivalence-based instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 48, 883–894.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.249.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnal, L., Fazzio, D., Martin, G. L., Yu, C. T., Keilback, L., & Starke, M. (2007). Instructing university students to conduct discrete-trials teaching with confederates simulating children with autism. Developmental Disabilities Bulletin, 35, 131–147.Google Scholar
  3. Bloh, C. (2008). Assessing transfer of stimulus control procedures across learners with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 24, 87–101.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Cariveau, T., Kodak, T., & Campbell, V. (2016). The effects of intertrial interval and instructional format on skill acquisition and maintenance for children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49, 809–825.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Casey, A. M., & McWilliam, R. A. (2008). Graphical feedback to increase teachers’ use of incidental teaching. Journal of Early Intervention, 30, 251–268.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1053815108319038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Catania, C. N., Almeida, D., Liu-Constant, B., & Reed, F. D. D. (2009). Video modeling to train staff to implement discrete-trial instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42, 387–392.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2009.42-387.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2018 from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/ss/ss6706a1.htm.
  8. Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., Dunn, E. K., & Pace, G. M. (2005). Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 205–219.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2005.98-04.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Critchfield, T. S. (2018). Efficiency is everything: Promoting efficient practice by harnessing derived stimulus relations. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 11, 206–210.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-0262-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Critchfield, T. S., & Fienup, D. M. (2010). Using stimulus equivalence technology to teach statistical inference in a group setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 763–768.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2010.43-763.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Critchfield, T. S., & Twyman, J. S. (2014). Prospective instructional design: Establishing conditions for emergent learning. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 13, 201–217.  https://doi.org/10.1891/1945-8959.13.2.201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crockett, J. L., Fleming, R. K., Doepke, K. J., & Stevens, J. S. (2007). Parent training: Acquisition and generalization of discrete trials teaching skills with parents of children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 23–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2005.10.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Delfs, C. H., Conine, D. E., Frampton, S. E., Shillingsburg, M. A., & Robinson, H. C. (2014). Evaluation of the efficiency of listener and tact instruction for children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 793–809.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Downs, A., Downs, R. C., Fossum, M., & Rau, K. (2008). Effectiveness of discrete trial teaching with preschool students with developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43, 443–453.Google Scholar
  15. Drifke, M. A., Tiger, J. H., & Wierzba, B. C. (2017). Using behavioral skills training to teach parents to implement three-step prompting: A component analysis and generalization assessment. Learning and Motivation, 57, 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lmot.2016.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Durán, E. (1985). Teaching janitorial skills to autistic adolescents. Adolescence, 20, 225–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fienup, D. M., & Critchfield, T. S. (2011). Transportability of equivalence-based programmed instruction: Efficacy and efficiency in a college classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 435–450.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2011.44-435.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Frampton, S. E., Robinson, H. C., Conine, D. E., & Delfs, C. H. (2017). An abbreviated evaluation of the efficiency of listener and tact instruction for children with autism. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 10, 131–144.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-017-0175-y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Graff, R. B., & Karsten, A. M. (2012). Evaluation of a self-instructional package for conducting stimulus preference assessments. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 69–82.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2012.45-69.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Grannan, L., & Rehfeldt, R. A. (2012). Emergent intraverbal responses via tact and match-to-sample instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 601–605.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2012.45-601.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Hagermoser Sanetti, L. M., Luiselli, J. K., & Handler, M. W. (2007). Effects of verbal and graphic performance feedback on behavior support plan implementation in a public elementary school. Behavior Modification, 31, 454–465.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445506297583.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Harris, S. L., Handleman, J. S., & Alessandri, M. (1990). Teaching youths with autism to offer assistance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 297–305.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1990.23-297.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Jennings, A. M., & Miguel, C. F. (2017). Training intraverbal bidirectional naming to establish generalized equivalence class performances. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 108, 268–289.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jeab.277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kodak, T., Campbell, V., Bergmann, S., LeBlanc, B., Kurtz-Nelson, E., Cariveau, T., et al. (2016). Examination of efficacious, efficient, and socially valid error-correction procedures to teach sight words and prepositions to children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49, 532–547.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kodak, T., Cariveau, T., Leblanc, B. A., Mahon, J. J., & Carroll, R. A. (2018). Selection and implementation of skill acquisition programs by special education teachers and staff for students with autism spectrum disorder. Behavior Modification, 42, 58–83.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445517692081.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kornacki, L. T., Ringdahl, J. E., Sjostrom, A., & Nuernberger, J. E. (2013). A component analysis of a behavioral skills training package used to teach conversation skills to young adults with autism spectrum and other developmental disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 1370–1376.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.07.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lafasakis, M., & Sturmey, P. (2007). Training parent implementation of discrete-trial teaching: Effects on generalization of parent teaching and child correct responding. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 685–689.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2007.685-689.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Lerman, D. C., Hawkins, L., Hillman, C., Shireman, M., & Nissen, M. A. (2015). Adults with autism spectrum disorder as behavior technicians for young children with autism: Outcomes of a behavioral skills training program. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 48, 233–256.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lerman, D. C., Hawkins, L., Hoffman, R., & Caccavale, M. (2013). Training adults with an autism spectrum disorder to conduct discrete-trial training for young children with autism: A pilot study. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46, 465–478.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lovett, S., Rehfeldt, R. A., Garcia, Y., & Dunning, J. (2011). Comparison of a stimulus equivalence protocol and traditional lecture for teaching single-subject designs. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 819–833.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2011.44-819.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Ma, M. L., Miguel, C. F., & Jennings, A. M. (2016). Training intraverbal naming to establish equivalence class performances. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 105, 409–426.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jeab.203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Martens, B. K., Hiralall, A. S., & Bradley, T. A. (1997). A note to teacher: Improving student behavior through goal setting and feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, 33–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Miles, N. I., & Wilder, D. A. (2009). The effects of behavioral skills training on caregiver implementation of guided compliance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42, 405–410.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2009.42-405.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Miltenberger, R. G. (2016). Behavior modification: Principles and procedures. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  35. Nosik, M. R., Williams, W. L., Garrido, N., & Lee, S. (2013). Comparison of computer based instruction to behavior skills training for teaching staff implementation of discrete-trial instruction with an adult with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 461–468.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2012.08.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Nuernberger, J. E., Ringdahl, J. E., Vargo, K. K., Crumpecker, A. C., & Gunnarsson, K. F. (2013). Using a behavioral skills training package to teach conversation skills to young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 411–417.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.09.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pérez-González, L. A., Herszilowicz, K., & Williams, G. (2008). Stimulus relations analysis and the emergence of novel intraverbals. The Psychological Record, 58, 95–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Petursdottir, A. I. (2018). The current status of the experimental analysis of verbal behavior. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice, 18, 151–168.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bar0000109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pollard, J. S., Higbee, T. S., Akers, J. S., & Brodhead, M. T. (2014). An evaluation of interactive computer training to teach instructors to implement discrete trials with children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 765–776.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Polson, D. A., & Parsons, J. A. (2000). Selection-based versus topography-based responding: An important distinction for stimulus equivalence? The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 17, 105–128.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Radley, K. C., Dart, E. H., Furlow, C. M., & Ness, E. J. (2015). Peer-mediated discrete trial training within a school setting. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 9, 53–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rehfeldt, R. A. (2011). Toward a technology of derived stimulus relations: An analysis of articles published in the journal of applied behavior analysis, 1992–2009. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 109–119.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2011.44-109.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Sarokoff, R. A., & Sturmey, P. (2004). The effects of behavioral skills training on staff implementation of discrete-trial teaching. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 535–538.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2004.37-535.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Seiverling, L., Williams, K., Sturmey, P., & Hart, S. (2012). Effects of behavioral skills training on parental treatment of children’s food selectivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 197–203.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2012.45-197.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Severtson, J. M., & Carr, J. E. (2012). Training novice instructors to implement errorless discrete-trial teaching: A sequential analysis. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5, 13–23.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391820.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Sidman, M. (1971). Reading and auditory-visual equivalences. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 14, 5–13.  https://doi.org/10.1044/jshr.1401.05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sidman, M. (2000). Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 74, 127–146.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2000.74-127.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Sidman, M. (2009). Equivalence relations and behavior: An introductory tutorial. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 25, 5–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Sidman, M., & Cresson, O. (1973). Reading and crossmodal transfer of stimulus equivalences in severe retardation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 77, 515–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Smith, T. (2001). Discrete trial training in the treatment of autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16, 86–92.  https://doi.org/10.1177/108835760101600204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thiessen, C., Fazzio, D., Arnal, L., Martin, G. L., Yu, C. T., & Keilback, L. (2009). Evaluation of a self-instructional manual for conducting discrete-trials teaching with children with autism. Behavior Modification, 33, 360–373.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445508327443.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Thomson, K. M., Martin, G. L., Fazzio, D., Salem, S., Young, K., & Yu, C. T. (2012). Evaluation of a self-instructional package for teaching tutors to conduct discrete-trials teaching with children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 1073–1082.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.02.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vladescu, J. C., Carroll, R., Paden, A., & Kodak, T. M. (2012). The effects of video modeling with voiceover instruction on accurate implementation of discrete-trial instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 419–423.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2012.45-419.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Walker, B. D., & Rehfeldt, R. A. (2012). An evaluation of the stimulus equivalence paradigm to tech single-subject design to distance education students via blackboard. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 329–344.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2012.45-329.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Ward-Horner, J., & Sturmey, P. (2012). Component analysis of behavior skills training in functional analysis. Behavioral Interventions, 27, 75–92.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of North Carolina WilmingtonWilmingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations