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Distinguishing SCT Symptoms from ADHD in Children: Internal and External Validity in Turkish Culture

  • Sümeyra Fırat
  • Hesna GülEmail author
  • Ayla Aysev
Article

Abstract

In this study, our aim was to evaluate the internal and external validity of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) and to determine if it is an independent factor from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Turkish children, like in other cultures. Two hundred sixty-one children (6–12 years of age) who applied to Ankara University Child and Adolescent Psychiatry outpatient clinics and diagnosed with ADHD recruited the study. All children were evaluated with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version which is a semi-structured diagnostic interview (K-SADS-PL) for ADHD diagnosis. Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6–18, The Barkley’s Child SCT Ratings Scale, SNAP-IV Parent and Teacher Scale, and Sociodemographic Information Form were enrolled by the parents and teachers of the children. Our results demonstrated that SCT symptoms formed two distinct but interrelated factors (Sluggish and Daydreaming) separate from those for ADHD. Due to regression analyses, higher levels of SCT predicted higher levels of ADHD-IN (Inattentive) and internalizing symptoms including anxiety-depression, social problems, and social withdrawal. These findings distinguished SCT cases from ADHD-IN in Turkish children. Results also indicated that ADHD- IN symptoms are risk factors for lower academic achievement while SCT symptoms haven’t such an effect. Our study is the first which demonstrates SCT’s construct validity relative to ADHD-IN by parental and teacher ratings in Turkey. Similar findings with Turkish children to the findings with children from other cultures would increase our confidence in the transcultural generalizability of SCT’s internal-external validity.

Keywords

ADHD Sluggish cognitive tempo Internal validity External validity Multicultural considerations 

Notes

Funding

We had received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Experiment Participants

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

We, all authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Child and Adolescent Psychiatry DepartmentSirnak State HospitalSirnakTurkey
  2. 2.Child and Adolescent Psychiatry DepartmentGulhane Research and Training HospitalEtlik / AnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Child and Adolescent Psychiatry DepartmentAnkara University School of MedicineAnkaraTurkey

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