Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Preparation, structural, microstructural, mechanical and cytotoxic characterization of as-cast Ti-25Ta-Zr alloys

  • 62 Accesses

Abstract

Titanium alloys have been widely used as biomaterials, especially for orthopedic prostheses and dental implants, but these materials have Young's modulus almost three times greater than human cortical bones. Because of this, new alloys are being produced for the propose of decreasing Young's modulus to achieve a more balanced mechanical compatibility with the bone. In this paper, it is reported the development of Ti-25Ta alloys as a base material, in which was introduced zirconium, with concentration varying between 0 and 40 wt%, with the aim of biomedical applications. The alloys were prepared in an arc-melting furnace. The microstructural analysis was performed by x-ray diffraction as well as optical and scanning electron microscopy. Selected mechanical properties were analyzed by microhardness and Young’s modulus measurements, and cytotoxicity analysis by indirect test. X-ray measurements revealed the presence of α″ phase in the alloy without zirconium; α″ + β phases for alloys with 10, 20, and 30 wt% of zirconium, and β phase only for the alloy with 40 wt% of zirconium. These results were corroborated by the microscopy results. The hardness of the alloy was higher than that of cp-Ti due to the actions of zirconium and tantalum as hardening agents. The Young’s modulus decreases with high levels of zirconium due to the stabilization of the β phase. The cytotoxicity test showed that the extracts of studied alloys are not cytotoxic for osteoblast cells in short periods of culture.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    Geetha M, Singh AK, Asokamani R, Gogia AK. Ti based biomaterials, the ultimate choice for orthopaedic implants - A review. Prog Mater Sci. 2009;54:397.

  2. 2.

    Kirmanidou Y, Sidira M, Drosou M-E, Bennani V, Bakopoulou A, Tsouknidas A. New Ti-alloys and surface modifications to improve the mechanical properties and the biological response to orthopedic and dental implants: A review. BioMed Res Int. 2016:21. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2908570.

  3. 3.

    Li Y, Yang C, Zhao H, Qu S, Li X, Li Y. New developments of Ti-based alloys for biomedical applications. Materials. 2014;7:1709.

  4. 4.

    Kolli R. Devaraj A. A review of metastable beta Titanium alloys. Metals. 2018;8:506.

  5. 5.

    Kaur M, Singh K. Review on Titanium and Titanium based alloys as biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. Mater Sci Eng. 2019;102:844. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.064.

  6. 6.

    Alrabeah GO, Brett P, Knowles JC, Petridis H. The effect of metal ions released from different dental implant-abutment couples on osteoblast function and secretion of bone resorbing mediators. J Dent. 2017;66:91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2017.08.002.

  7. 7.

    Chappard D, Bizot P, Mabilleau G, Hubert L. Aluminum and bone: Review of new clinical circumstances associated with Al3+ deposition in the calcified matrix of bone. Morphologie. 2016;100:95.

  8. 8.

    Zhou YL, Niinomi M, Akahori T, Fukui H, Toda H. Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Ti-Ta alloys for biomedical applications. Mater Sci Eng A. 2005;398:28.

  9. 9.

    Zhou YL, Niinomi M, Akahori T. Effects of Ta content on Young’s modulus and tensile properties of binary Ti–Ta alloys for biomedical applications. Mater Sci Eng A. 2004;371:283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2003.12.011.

  10. 10.

    Zhou Y-L, Niinomi M. Ti–25Ta alloy with the best mechanical compatibility in Ti–Ta alloys for biomedical applications. Mater Sci Eng C. 2009;29:1061. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2008.09.012.

  11. 11.

    Ho WF, Chen WK, Wu SC, Hsu HC. Structure, mechanical properties, and grindability of dental Ti-Zr alloys. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008;19:3179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-008-3454-x.

  12. 12.

    Correa DRN, Vicente FB, Donato TAG, Arana-Chavez VE, Buzalaf MAR, Grandini CR. The effect of the solute on the structure, selected mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of Ti–Zr system alloys for dental applications. Mater Sci Eng C. 2014;34:354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2013.09.032.

  13. 13.

    Biesiekierski A, Ping D, Li Y, Lin J, Munir KS, Yamabe-Mitarai Y. Extraordinary high strength Ti-Zr-Ta alloys through nanoscaled, dual-cubic spinodal reinforcement. Acta Biomater. 2017;53:549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2017.01.085.

  14. 14.

    Vasilescu C, Drob S, Moreno JC, Osiceanu P, Popa M, Vasilescu E. Long-term corrosion resistance of new Ti–Ta–Zr alloy in simulated physiological fluids by electrochemical and surface analysis methods. Corros Sci. 2015;93:310.

  15. 15.

    Kuroda PAB, Buzalaf MAR, Grandini CR. Effect of molybdenum on structure, microstructure and mechanical properties of biomedical Ti-20Zr-Mo alloys. Mater Sci Eng C. 2016;67:511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.05.053.

  16. 16.

    Quadros FdF, Kuroda PAB, Sousa KdSJ, Donato TAG, Grandini CR. Preparation, structural and microstructural characterization of Ti-25Ta-10Zr alloy for biomedical applications. J Mater Res Technol. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.07.020.

  17. 17.

    ASTM. E2371-04—Standard test method for analysis of titanium and titanium alloys by atomic emission plasma spectrometry. West Conshohocken: ASTM International; 2004.

  18. 18.

    ASTM. E1409-08—Standard test method for determination of oxygen and nitrogen in titanium and titanium alloys by the inert gas fusion technique. West Conshohocken: ASTM International; 2008.

  19. 19.

    Toby BH. A Graphical User Interface for GSAS. J Appl Crystallogr. 2001;34:210.

  20. 20.

    Rietveld HM. Profile refinement method for nuclear and magnetic structure. J Appl Crystallogr. 1969;2:65.

  21. 21.

    Severino Martins JR, Grandini CR. Structural characterization of Ti-15Mo alloy used as biomaterial by Rietveld method. J Appl Phys. 2012;111:083535. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4707920.

  22. 22.

    ASTM. E407-07—Standard practice for microetching metals and alloys. West Conshohocken: ASTM International; 2007.

  23. 23.

    ASTM. E92-82—Standard test method for vickers hardness of metallic materials. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International; 2003.

  24. 24.

    ASTM. E1876–01—Standard test method for dynamic Young’s Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson’s ratio by impulse excitation of vibration. Philadelphia, USA: ASTM International; 2002.

  25. 25.

    ISO. 10993-5—Biological evaluation of medical devices—Part 5: tests for in vitro cytotoxicity. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization; 2009.

  26. 26.

    Donato TAG, de Almeida LH, Nogueira RA, Niemeyer TC, Grandini CR, Caram R. Cytotoxicity study of some Ti alloys used as biomaterial. Mater Sci Eng C. 2009;29:1365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2008.10.021.

  27. 27.

    Donato T, Almeida de L, Arana-Chavez V, Grandini C. In Vitro cytotoxicity of a Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta alloy doped with different Oxygen contents. Materials. 2014;7:2183.

  28. 28.

    Collings EW. The physical metallurgy of titanium alloys. Ohio: ASM International; 1989.

  29. 29.

    ASTM. F2066-08—Standard specification for wrought Titanium-15 Molybdenum alloy for surgical implant application. Philadelphia, USA: ASTM International; 2008.

  30. 30.

    Lide D. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics: a ready-reference book of chemical and physical data. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press; 2004.

  31. 31.

    Correa DRN, Kuroda PAB, Lourenco ML, Fernandes CJC, Buzalaf MAR, Zambuzzi WF. Development of Ti-15Zr-Mo alloys for applying as implantable biomedical devices. J Alloy Compd. 2018;749:163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.03.308.

  32. 32.

    Ho W-F, Wu S-C, Hsu S-K, Li Y-C, Hsu H-C. Effects of Molybdenum content on the structure and mechanical properties of as-cast Ti–10Zr-based alloys for biomedical applications. Mater Sci Eng C. 2012;32:517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2011.12.003.

  33. 33.

    Correa DRN, Vicente FB, Araújo RO, Lourenço ML, Kuroda PAB, Buzalaf MAR. Effect of the substitutional elements on the microstructure of the Ti-15Mo-Zr and Ti-15Zr-Mo systems alloys. J Mater Res Technol. 2015;4:180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2015.02.007.

  34. 34.

    Lütjering G, Williams JC, Gysler A. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Titanium alloys, In: Microstructure and properties of materials. Microstruct Prop Mater; 1998.

  35. 35.

    Freese HL, Volas MG, Wood JR, Textor M. Titanium and its alloys in biomedical engineering. In: KHJB, Robert WC, Merton CF, Bernard I, Edward JK, Subhash M, Patrick V, editors. Encyclopedia of materials: science and technology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Elsevier; 2001.

  36. 36.

    Banerjee R, Nag S, Stechschulte J, Fraser HL. Strengthening mechanisms in Ti–Nb–Zr–Ta and Ti–Mo–Zr–Fe orthopaedic alloys. Biomaterials. 2004;25:3413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2003.10.041.

  37. 37.

    Ho W-F, Cheng C-H, Pan C-H, Wu S-C, Hsu H-C. Structure, mechanical properties and grindability of dental Ti-10Zr-X alloys. Mater Sci Eng C. 2009;29:36.

  38. 38.

    Davis R, Flower HM, West DRF. The decomposition of Ti-Mo alloy martensites by nucleation and growth and spinodal mechanisms. Acta Metall. 1979;27:1041.

  39. 39.

    Dey GK, Singh RN, Tewari R, Srivastava D, Banerjee S. Metastability of the [beta]-phase in Zr-rich Zr-Nb alloys. J Nucl Mater. 1995;224:146.

  40. 40.

    Mohammed MT, Khan ZA, Siddiquee AN. Beta Titanium Alloys: The lowest elastic modulus for biomedical applications: A review. Int J Chem Mol Nucl Mater Metall Eng. 2014;8:821.

  41. 41.

    Li Y, Wong C, Xiong J, Hodgson P, Wen C. Cytotoxicity of titanium and titanium alloying elements. J Dent Res. 2010;89:493.

  42. 42.

    Park Y-J, Song Y-H, An J-H, Song H-J, Anusavice KJ. Cytocompatibility of pure metals and experimental binary titanium alloys for implant materials. J Dent. 2013;41:1251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2013.09.003.

  43. 43.

    Sevcikova J, Pavkova Goldbergova M. Biocompatibility of NiTi alloys in the cell behaviour. BioMetals. 2017;163.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Faculdade de Ciências de Bauru, UNESP, for the XRD and SEM measurements. This study was supported by the following funding agencies FAPESP (grant #2013/09.063-5 and #2015/09.480-0) and CNPq (grants #307.279/2013-8, #137.221/2015-0, #157.509/2015-0 and #400.705/2015-0).

Author information

Correspondence to Carlos Roberto Grandini.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kuroda, P.A.B., de Freitas Quadros, F., Sousa, K.d.S.J. et al. Preparation, structural, microstructural, mechanical and cytotoxic characterization of as-cast Ti-25Ta-Zr alloys. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 31, 19 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-019-6350-7

Download citation