Physicochemical evaluation and in vitro hemocompatibility study on nanoporous hydroxyapatite

  • Chee-Heong Ooi
  • Yew Pei Ling
  • Wan Zaidah Abdullah
  • Ahmad Zakwan Mustafa
  • Swee-Yong Pung
  • Fei-Yee YeohEmail author
Biomaterials Synthesis and Characterization Original Research
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biomaterials Synthesis and Characterization


Hydroxyapatite is an ideal biomaterial for bone tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility and hemocompatibility which have been widely studied by many researchers. The incorporation of nanoporosity into hydroxyapatite could transform the biomaterial into an effective adsorbent for uremic toxins removal especially in artificial kidney system. However, the effect of nanoporosity incorporation on the hemocompatibility of hydroxyapatite has yet to be answered. In this study, nanoporous hydroxyapatite was synthesized using hydrothermal technique and its hemocompatibility was determined. Non-ionic surfactants were used as soft templates to create porosity in the hydroxyapatite. The presence of pure hydroxyapatite phase in the synthesized samples is validated by X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The TEM images show that the hydroxyapatite formed rod-like particles with the length of 21–90 nm and diameter of 11–70 nm. The hydroxyapatite samples exhibit BET surface area of 33–45 m2 g−1 and pore volume of 0.35–0.44 cm3 g−1. The hemocompatibility of the hydroxyapatite was determined via hemolysis test, platelet adhesion, platelet activation and blood clotting time measurement. The nanoporous hydroxyapatite shows less than 5% hemolysis, suggesting that the sample is highly hemocompatible. There is no activation and morphological change observed on the platelets adhered onto the hydroxyapatite. The blood clotting time demonstrates that the blood incubated with the hydroxyapatite did not coagulate. This study summarizes that the synthesized nanoporous hydroxyapatite is a highly hemocompatible biomaterial and could potentially be utilized in biomedical applications.



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from the Universiti Sains Malaysia, Ministry of Education (MOE, Malaysia) and MyBrain 15 scholarship program. Highest gratitude is expressed for the technical support provided by the staff from the Centre of Research Laboratory (a division of School of Medical Sciences), Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering CampusUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Haematology, School of Medical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia

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